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How requirements development could support design of effective and resource-efficient offerings
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
2017 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

What a company offers its customers has to fulfil several different needs, desires, constraints, which can originate from multiple different sources that affect the offering throughout its life cycle. All these criteria have to come together and be translated into statements that can support the designer’s understanding of the offering’s purpose. This translation is done through a requirements development process to provide a controlled process to define statements that describe what the offering is supposed to fulfil.

This research provides insights on key challenges and success factors in requirements development to support the design of effective and resource-efficient offerings. Namely, it identifies crucial sources and aspects to be considered, and a requirements development process demonstrating how to overcome identified challenges. By getting the requirements right from the beginning, sub-optimisation and unnecessary time and risks can be avoided. The consideration of accurate sources and aspects is considered to be one of the most important factors for the successful design of offerings. It is also in the earliest phases of design, that is to say requirements development, where one has the greatest possibility to affect the environmental impact of the offering. What is missing, however, is sufficient and appropriate support in industry on how to do so.

The gap between the three areas of effectiveness and resource efficiency, design of integrated offerings, and requirements development has been investigated. Results are based on findings in the literature and in industry, identified primarily by qualitative studies. In the research, 15 different companies have been included through a number of interviews and discussions.

Key sources and aspects to consider in the requirements development process are identified along with challenges, and success factors that can be utilised to overcome the identified challenges. This research’s final results include an adapted requirements development process that considers the earlier-mentioned sources and aspect, challenges, and success factors. Such a requirements development process should support the design of effective and resource-efficient offerings.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2017. , p. 77
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1789
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-143011DOI: 10.3384/lic.diva-143011ISBN: 9789176854327 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-143011DiVA, id: diva2:1157082
Presentation
2017-12-07, ACAS, A-huset, Campus Valla, Linköping, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

The series name given in the fulltext: Linköping Studies in Science and Technology Licentiate Thesis is incorrect. The correct series name is: Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis

Available from: 2017-11-15 Created: 2017-11-15 Last updated: 2017-11-22Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A Literature Review to Understand the Requirements Specification’s Role when Developing Integrated Product Service Offerings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Literature Review to Understand the Requirements Specification’s Role when Developing Integrated Product Service Offerings
2016 (English)In: Product-Service Systems across Life Cycle / [ed] Sergio Cavalieri, Elisabetta Ceretti, Tullio Tolio, Giuditta Pezzotta, Elsevier, 2016, Vol. 47, p. 150-155Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper's objective is to analyze, based on a literature review, how existing IPSO design methods support and manage requirements when developing an IPSO. Issues analyzed are e.g. which types of aspects existing methods should consider, such as environmental issues and demands from stakeholders and customers. Another issue is what types of stakeholders are involved in the process. There is also an interest in finding out which of these methods are used in the industry. The goal is that the results will provide insight into how the requirements specification is used when developing an IPSO in theory, and in what way this insight will contribute to future studies on how companies currently derive and manage requirements when developing an IPSO.

The literature review started out with the analysis of 201 papers, yielding 22 papers within the area of working with requirements for an IPSO. These papers were reviewed and summarized with the above issues and interests in mind. Findings are that when deriving requirements, existing IPSO design methods are lacking in regard to a holistic life cycle and system perspective of the offering. Few of the methods consider both requirements regarding the environmental impact of the offering and demands from all involved stakeholders, normally only the customer. Furthermore, few studies have ended with a clear work process regarding how to initially find the requirements to analyze them and later interpret them as actual metrics. There are also no signs that existing methodology is used in the industry's day-to-day work.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Series
Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271 ; 47
Keywords
Product Service System (PSS), Integrated Product Service Engineering (IPSE), Engineering design
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130972 (URN)10.1016/j.procir.2016.03.225 (DOI)000387505100026 ()
Conference
8th CIRP IPSS CONFERENCE, Product-Service Systems across Life Cycle, Bergamo, Italy, June 20-21, 2016
Projects
Mistra REES
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
Available from: 2016-09-01 Created: 2016-09-01 Last updated: 2017-11-15Bibliographically approved
2. Integrating Requirements Engineering for Different Domains in System Development: Lessons Learnt from Industrial SME Cases
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integrating Requirements Engineering for Different Domains in System Development: Lessons Learnt from Industrial SME Cases
2017 (English)In: Procedia CIRP: 9th CIRP IPSS Conference: Circular Perspectives on PSS / [ed] Tim C. McAloone, Daniela C.A. Pigosso, Niels Henrik Mortensen and Yoshiki Shimomura, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 64, p. 351-356Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

There is a trending transition for companies from offering products to solutions in order to fulfill better customer needs and to reduce environmental impact by e.g. dematerialization. This solution-based development has an associated integration of intelligent devices that contributes to increasing system complexity. The ability of systems engineering processes, methods and tools to cope with these developments is a critical factor for manufacturing companies today. Still, in many cases it is hard to find adequately trained people and sufficiently integrated development tools for complex solutions, especially in the case of small and medium sized enterprises. Often, the tangible (hardware) part of the solution is primarily developed and the intangible parts (software and services) are added on top. However, key for a successful development is to adapt and integrate all parts according to the requirements set for the solution. Thus, it is essential how requirements are worked with during systems engineering and how they influence the development of the tangible and intangible parts of the solution. The objective of this paper is to study the approach of different industrial use cases for requirements engineering in system development. The aim is to identify how practices from domains like mechanical engineering, software or service engineering can be adapted for an integrated requirements engineering for complex systems, like product-service systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Series
Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271
Keywords
Systems Engineering; Requirements Engineering; Product-Service Systems; Industrial Case Study
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-138351 (URN)10.1016/j.procir.2017.03.013 (DOI)000414528200060 ()
Conference
9th CIRP IPSS Conference: Circular Perspectives on PSS, June 19-21, 2017, Copenhagen, Denmark
Note

Funding agencies:This work has been funded by the European Commission through the project PSYMBIOSYS: Product-Service sYMBIOtic SYStems (No. 636804) and by Mistra (The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research) through the Mistra REES (Resource Efficient and Effective Solutions) program. The authors wish to acknowledge the funding bodies and all the project partners for their contribution.

Available from: 2017-06-13 Created: 2017-06-13 Last updated: 2017-11-20

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