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A unified treatment of self-sputtering, process gas recycling, and runaway for high power impulse sputtering magnetrons
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden; University of Paris Saclay, France.
KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden; University of Paris Saclay, France; University of Iceland, Iceland.
KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden.
University of Paris Saclay, France.
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2017 (English)In: Plasma sources science & technology (Print), ISSN 0963-0252, E-ISSN 1361-6595, Vol. 26, no 12, article id 125003Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The combined processes of self-sputter (SS)-recycling and process gas recycling in high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharges are analyzed using the generalized recycling model (GRM). The study uses experimental data from discharges with current densities from the direct current magnetron sputtering range to the HiPIMS range, and using targets with self-sputter yields Y-SS from approximate to 0.1 to 2.6. The GRM analysis reveals that, above a critical current density of the order of J(crit) approximate to 0.2 A cm(-2), a combination of self-sputter recycling and gas-recycling is generally the case. The relative contributions of these recycling mechanisms, in turn, influence both the electron energy distribution and the stability of the discharges. For high self-sputter yields, above Y-SS approximate to 1, the discharges become dominated by SS-recycling, contain few hot secondary electrons from sheath energization, and have a relatively low electron temperature T-e. Here, stable plateau values of the discharge current develop during long pulses, and these values increase monotonically with the applied voltage. For low self-sputter yields, below Y-SS approximate to 0.2, the discharges above J(crit) are dominated by process gas recycling, have a significant sheath energization of secondary electrons and a higher T-e, and the current evolution is generally less stable. For intermediate values of YSS the discharge character gradually shifts between these two types. All of these discharges can, at sufficiently high discharge voltage, give currents that increase rapidly in time. For such cases we propose that a distinction should be made between unlimited runaway and limited runaway: in unlimited runaway the current can, in principle, increase without a limit for a fixed discharge voltage, while in limited runaway it can only grow towards finite, albeit very high, levels. For unlimited runway Y-SS amp;gt; 1 is found to be a necessary criterion, independent of the amount of gas-recycling in the discharge.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOP PUBLISHING LTD , 2017. Vol. 26, no 12, article id 125003
Keywords [en]
magnetron sputtering; self-sputtering; gas recycling; high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS)
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-143233DOI: 10.1088/1361-6595/aa959bISI: 000415059000001OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-143233DiVA, id: diva2:1160450
Note

Funding Agencies|Svensk-Franska Stiftelsen; Icelandic Research Fund [130029]; Swedish Government Agency for Innovation Systems (VINNOVA) [2014-04876]

Available from: 2017-11-27 Created: 2017-11-27 Last updated: 2017-12-05

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