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Energy efficiency and ventilation in Swedish industries barriers, simulation and control strategy
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The energy issue is presently in focus worldwide. This is not only due to increasing environmental concern regarding energy related emissions, but also due to the trend of increasing energy prices. Energy usage in the industrial sector in Sweden today represents about one third of the national energy use. A substantial part of that is related to support processes such as heating, ventilation and cooling systems. These systems are important as they are related both to energy cost and indoor climate management as well as to the health of the occupants.

The purpose of this thesis is to reach a more comprehensive view on industrial energy efficiency and indoor environment issues related to industrial ventilation. This has been studied in three themes where the first part addresses barriers to energy efficiency in Swedish industries, the second theme discuss simulation as decision support, and the third studies the variable air volume system in industrial facilities.

In the first theme three different studies were made: the first studies non-energy intensive companies in Oskarshamn in Sweden, the second studies the energy intensive foundry industry and the third study was part of an evaluation of a large energy efficiency program called Project Highland. These studies had several findings in common, such as the importance of a strategic view on the energy issue and the presence of a person with real ambition with power over investment decisions related to energy issues at the company. The studies also show that several information related barriers are important for decision makers at the studied companies. This shows that information related barriers are one reason in why energy efficient equipment is not implemented.

In the second theme the use of simulation in the form of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Building Energy Simulation (BES) are used as decision support for industrial ventilation related studies at two different industries, one foundry is investigated and one dairy. BES has mainly been used to simulate energy and power related parameters while CFD was used to give a detailed description of the indoor and product environment. Together these methods can be used to better evaluate the energy, indoor and product environment and thus enable the implementation of more efficient heating, ventilation and air-conditioning systems.

In the third theme the use of Variable Air Volume (VAV) systems was evaluated, and was found to be an efficient way to reduce energy use at the studied sites. At the studied foundry the VAV system is predicted to reduce space heating and electricity use by fans by about 30%, and in the dairy case by about 60% for space heating and 20% for electricity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2008. , 95 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1223
Keyword [en]
Industrial energy efficiency, Industrial ventilation, Barriers, Driving forces. CFD
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15531ISBN: 978-91-7393-767-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-15531DiVA: diva2:117499
Public defence
2008-11-21, ACAS, Hus A, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-11-14 Created: 2008-11-14 Last updated: 2009-05-12Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Barriers to and driving forces for energy efficiency in the non-energy-intensive manufacturing industry in Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Barriers to and driving forces for energy efficiency in the non-energy-intensive manufacturing industry in Sweden
2006 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 31, no 12, 1836-1844 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The manufacturing industry is facing tougher competition which increases the demand to implement cost-effective energy efficiency measures. However, studies have indicated that obvious cost-efficient measures are not always undertaken. This is explained by the existence of barriers to energy efficiency. The aim of this study is to investigate the existence and importance of different barriers to the implementation of energy efficiency measures in the Swedish non energy intensive manufacturing industry. Results from this study highlight a number of factors that inhibit the degree of implementation, such as the cost and risk associated with production disruptions, lack of time and other priorities, lack of sub-metering in larger organizations, etc. The study also finds a number of drivers, such as the existence of people with real ambition and a long-term energy strategy at site level.

Keyword
Energy efficiency, Barriers, Driving forces, Industry
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12510 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2005.10.010 (DOI)
Note
Original publication: P. Rohdin and P. Thollander, Barriers to and Driving Forces for Energy Efficiency in the Non-Energy Intensive Manufacturing Industry in Sweden, 2006, Energy, (31), 12, 1836-1844. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2005.10.010. Copyright: Elsevier B.V., http://www.elsevier.com/ Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2008-09-10 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
2. Barriers to and drivers for energy efficiency in the Swedish foundry industry
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Barriers to and drivers for energy efficiency in the Swedish foundry industry
2007 (English)In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 35, no 1, 672-677 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Despite the need for increased industrial energy efficiency, studies indicate that cost-efficient energy conservation measures are not always implemented, explained by the existence of barriers to energy efficiency. This paper investigates the existence of different barriers to and driving forces for the implementation of energy efficiency measures in the energy intensive Swedish foundry industry. The overall results from a questionnaire show that limited access to capital constitutes by far the largest barrier to energy efficiency according to the respondents. A comparison between group-owned and privately owned foundries shows that, except for limited access to capital, they face different high-ranked barriers. While barriers within group owned companies are more related to organizational problems, barriers within private foundries are more related to information problems. This study also found that energy consultants or other actors working with energy issues in foundries are of major importance in overcoming the largest barriers, as the foundries consider them trustworthy. They may thus help the foundries overcome organizational problems such as lack of sub-metering and lack of budget funds by quantifying potential energy efficiency investments. The two, by far, most important drivers were found to be people with real ambition and long-term energy strategies.

Keyword
Barriers, Drivers, Industrial energy efficiency
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12511 (URN)10.1016/j.enpol.2006.01.010 (DOI)
Note
Original publication: Patrik Rohdin, Patrik Thollander, Petter Solding, Barriers to and drivers for energy efficiency in the Swedish foundry industry, 2006, Energy Policy, (35), 1, 672-677. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2006.01.010. Copyright: Elsevier B.V., http://www.elsevier.com/ Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2008-09-10 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
3. Measured and predicted energy demand of a low energy building: Important aspects when using Building Energy Simulation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measured and predicted energy demand of a low energy building: Important aspects when using Building Energy Simulation
2007 (English)In: Building services engineering research and technology, ISSN 0143-6244, Vol. 28, no 3, 223 -235 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Three different simulation tools were used to simulate a low energy terraced house in the south of Sweden. The software tools all use dynamic models to calculate, for example, the energy demand for heating and the indoor temperatures. The aim of this paper is to discuss the relative importance to the annual energy demand of different energy aspects of a Swedish low-energy house. Both measured and simulated values are considered and compared. The focus is on the impact of choice of software, the habits of the tenants, and the relative impact of different design parameters such as ventilation rates.The measured values for total electricity demand range from about 6000 kWh to over 12 000 kWh, the average demand being 8020 kWh. The annual predicted total energy demand using three different simulation software tools deviated by about 2%. The energy use deviation due to airflow control was about 10%, and the deviation due to differences in heat exchanger efficiency was about 20% and the deviation in annual energy use due to differences in internal gains due to differences in tenant habits, assumed in the models, was 7%.Furthermore, when comparing the predicted energy use during the design process of the low-energy building with actual measurements after the tenants have moved in, these differ about 50% in average for this specific case.Practical application: Building energy simulation software is often used to make predictions of how different construction materials, design principles and operation influence the energy balance and indoor thermal comfort. It is therefore important that the output of these software tools is trustworthy and accurate. This paper discusses the importance of accurate input data during the design process in order to achieve a valid prediction of energy use with emphasis on tenants' behaviour. It was shown that the deviations in a parametric study were larger than the deviations in the comparison between the results from the three simulation tools. This indicates a need for more accurate models for modelling tenant behaviour and habits rather than more accurate building component models.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SAGE Journals Online, 2007
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14155 (URN)10.1177/0143624407077393 (DOI)
Available from: 2008-11-14 Created: 2008-11-14 Last updated: 2009-05-04Bibliographically approved
4. Energy policies for increased industrial energy efficiency: Evaluation of a local energy programme for manufacturing SMEs
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy policies for increased industrial energy efficiency: Evaluation of a local energy programme for manufacturing SMEs
2007 (English)In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 35, no 11, 5774-5783 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The most extensive action targeting the adoption of energy efficiency measures in small- and medium-sized manufacturing industries in Sweden over the past 15 years was project Highland. This paper presents an evaluation of the first part of this local industrial energy programme, which shows an adoption rate of more than 40% when both measures that have already been implemented and measures that are planned to be implemented are included. A comparison between this programme and another major ongoing programme for the Swedish energy-intensive industry indicates that the approach used in project Highland aimed at small- and medium-sized industries is an effective way to increase energy efficiency in the Swedish industry. The major barriers to energy efficiency among the firms were related to the low priority of the energy efficiency issue.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2007
Keyword
Energy efficiency, Energy audits, Industrial energy programmes
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12512 (URN)10.1016/j.enpol.2007.06.013 (DOI)
Note
Original publication: Patrik Thollander, Maria Danestig and Patrik Rohdin, Energy policies for increased industrial energy efficiency - Evaluation of a local energy programme for manufacturing SMEs, 2007, Energy Policy, (35), 11, 5774-5783. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2007.06.013. Copyright: Elsevier B.V., http://www.elsevier.com/Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2008-09-10 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
5. Numerical predictions of indoor climate in large industrial premises: A comparison between different k–ε models supported by field measurements
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Numerical predictions of indoor climate in large industrial premises: A comparison between different k–ε models supported by field measurements
2007 (English)In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, Vol. 42, no 11, 3872-3882 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper explores the benefits of using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) as a tool for prediction of indoor environment in large and complex industrial premises, in this case a packaging facility. This paper also presents a comparison between three eddy-viscosity turbulence models, i.e. the standard k–ε, the RNG k–ε, and the realizable k–ε, used for predictions of the flow pattern and temperature distribution in this large industrial facility. The predictions are compared with field measurements and the RNG k–ε model has been found to be the one most concurrent with the measured values.

The paper also shows that a 50% reduction in the supply airflow rate can be an efficient energy efficiency measure, for the studied packaging facility, without compromising either product safety or thermal comfort. When implementing this efficiency measure it is predicted to lead to a reduction of the use of electricity and district heating by 85%, respectively, 61%. The energy use is calculated using IDA ICE 3.0. The ventilation effectiveness for heat removal (εt) and percentage dissatisfied (PD-index) are used to evaluate the indoor climate

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2007
Keyword
CFD, Industrial ventilation, Indoor climate, Energy
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15522 (URN)10.1016/j.buildenv.2006.11.005 (DOI)
Available from: 2008-11-14 Created: 2008-11-14 Last updated: 2009-05-12
6. Numerical Predictions of Indoor Climate in a Light Alloy Casting Facility
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Numerical Predictions of Indoor Climate in a Light Alloy Casting Facility
2006 (English)In: Proceedings of the 13th international heat transfer conference, IHTC-13, August 13-18, Sydney, Australia, 2006Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Indoor comfort, human health, and energy demand are important issues when designing industrial premises, such as a casing facility. This paper evaluates the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) combined with energy simulations as a tool to obtain detailed information in order to design more efficient installations to meet work environment, product environment, and energy requirements. The CFD model is compared with temperature and velocity measurements, and the mean deviation between measured and simulated values was 0.6°C and 0.05 m/s respectively. This indicates significant potential application when designing this type of highly complex facility. The paper also investigates the potential of a flow reduction, which is shown to be an efficient way to increase comfort and reduce energy usage, when changing the production process. The ventilation effectiveness for heat removal (εt), Percentage Dissatisfied (PD-index), and mean age of air were used to evaluate the indoor air quality. Results show that the supply airflows can be reduced in the premises without compromising the indoor environment.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15523 (URN)10.1615/IHTC13.p15.30 (DOI)
Available from: 2008-11-14 Created: 2008-11-14 Last updated: 2009-05-12
7. CFD and BES as Decision Support When Implementing a Variable Air Volume System in a Foundry
Open this publication in new window or tab >>CFD and BES as Decision Support When Implementing a Variable Air Volume System in a Foundry
2007 (English)In: Proceedings of Clima 2007 WellBeing Indoor Congress, 10-14 June, Helsinki, Finland., 2007Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The focus on implementing cost efficiency energy efficiency measures will in all probability increase in the future, but it has been shown that trustworthy, site specific information are key features is increasing the adoption of such measures.

This study shows that Building Energy Simulation (BES) software gives trustworthy predictions of energy use and average temperature in the studied case, making it possible to study different HVAC control strategies. When coupled with CFD, it is also possible to study thermal comfort, ventilation efficiency, ventilation effectiveness and draught, giving an even wider range of decision support.

This study also shows that a VAV system is an interesting HVAC control technique for the studied foundry. In this case, the technical potential for reducing energy use in terms of both heat and electricity is predicted to be 30.3% and 28.9% respectively.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15528 (URN)
Available from: 2008-11-14 Created: 2008-11-14 Last updated: 2009-03-16
8. Variable Air Volume-Flow Systems: A Possible Way to Reduce Energy Use in the Swedish Dairy Industry
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Variable Air Volume-Flow Systems: A Possible Way to Reduce Energy Use in the Swedish Dairy Industry
2007 (English)In: The International Journal of Ventilation, ISSN 1473-3315, Vol. 5, no 4, 381-392 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Growing concern about negative effects on the environment and increasing energy prices stress the importance of energy efficiency. Support processes such as heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) use large amounts of energy in the dairy industry. In this paper the energy aspects of the support processes at two large dairies, built at three different points in time, are analyzed and compared with energy use throughout the rest of the company. Significant differences in the use of energy and the resulting indoor climate were found. One way to reduce the impact of increasing energy used by HVAC is to use Variable Air Volume-flow (VAV) systems. The potential for using VAV systems in the dairy industry is studied using a whole-site simulation for one of the sites. The simulations predict a potential for reducing space heating by 60%, and the amount of electricity used to run fans and compressors for air-cooling systems by 21%. This remarkable potential for reducing heat use is due to the dynamics of the process during the heating season. The indoor climate and energy simulation was carried out using the commercial code IDA ICE. The model has been validated with extensive measurements over an entire year. The predicted indoor air temperatures are in good agreement with the measured values. The use of VAV systems is concluded to be an effective energy efficiency measure for reducing the energy used by HVAC systems in the dairy industry.

Keyword
Building energy simulation, energy efficiency, dairy industry, VAV systems, indoor climate, comparison with measurements
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15525 (URN)
Available from: 2008-11-14 Created: 2008-11-14 Last updated: 2009-05-12

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