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Effect of Hydrolyzed Infant Formula vs Conventional Formula on Risk of Type 1 Diabetes The TRIGR Randomized Clinical Trial
University of Helsinki, Finland; Helsinki University Hospital, Finland.
University of Helsinki, Finland.
Charles University of Prague, Czech Republic.
University of Pittsburgh, PA USA.
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2018 (English)In: Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), ISSN 0098-7484, E-ISSN 1538-3598, Vol. 319, no 1, p. 38-48Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

IMPORTANCE Early exposure to complex dietary proteins may increase the risk of type 1 diabetes in children with genetic disease susceptibility. There are no intact proteins in extensively hydrolyzed formulas. OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that weaning to an extensively hydrolyzed formula decreases the cumulative incidence of type 1 diabetes in young children. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS An international double-blind randomized clinical trial of 2159 infants with human leukocyte antigen-conferred disease susceptibility and a first-degree relative with type 1 diabetes recruited from May 2002 to January 2007 in 78 study centers in 15 countries; 1081 were randomized to be weaned to the extensively hydrolyzed casein formula and 1078 to a conventional formula. The follow-up of the participants ended on February 28, 2017. INTERVENTIONS The participants received either a casein hydrolysate or a conventional adapted cows milk formula supplemented with 20% of the casein hydrolysate. The minimum duration of study formula exposure was 60 days by 6 to 8 months of age. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Primary outcome was type 1 diabetes diagnosed according to World Health Organization criteria. Secondary outcomes included age at diabetes diagnosis and safety (adverse events). RESULTS Among 2159 newborn infants (1021 female [47.3%]) who were randomized, 1744 (80.8%) completed the trial. The participants were observed for a median of 11.5 years (quartile [Q] 1-Q3, 10.2-12.8). The absolute risk of type 1 diabetes was 8.4% among those randomized to the casein hydrolysate (n = 91) vs 7.6% among those randomized to the conventional formula (n = 82) (difference, 0.8%[95% CI, -1.6% to 3.2%]). The hazard ratio for type 1 diabetes adjusted for human leukocyte antigen risk group, duration of breastfeeding, duration of study formula consumption, sex, and region while treating study center as a random effect was 1.1 (95% CI, 0.8 to 1.5; P = .46). The median age at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes was similar in the 2 groups (6.0 years [Q1-Q3, 3.1-8.9] vs 5.8 years [Q1-Q3, 2.6-9.1]; difference, 0.2 years [95% CI, -0.9 to 1.2]). Upper respiratory infections were the most common adverse event reported (frequency, 0.48 events/year in the hydrolysate group and 0.50 events/year in the control group). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Among infants at risk for type 1 diabetes, weaning to a hydrolyzed formula compared with a conventional formula did not reduce the cumulative incidence of type 1 diabetes after median follow-up for 11.5 years. These findings do not support a need to revise the dietary recommendations for infants at risk for type 1 diabetes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER MEDICAL ASSOC , 2018. Vol. 319, no 1, p. 38-48
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-144246DOI: 10.1001/jama.2017.19826ISI: 000419116000014PubMedID: 29297078OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-144246DiVA, id: diva2:1176314
Note

Funding Agencies|Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Development (NICHD); National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health [HD040364, HD042444, HD051997]; Canadian Institutes of Health Research; Commission of the European Communities [QLK1-2002-00372]; European Foundation for the Study of Diabates/JDRF/Novo Nordisk; Academy of Finland (Centre of Excellence in Molecular Systems Immunology and Physiology Research) [250114]; Dutch Diabetes Research Foundation; Finnish Diabetes Research Foundation; JDRF

Available from: 2018-01-22 Created: 2018-01-22 Last updated: 2018-02-12

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Ludvigsson, JohnnyTRIGR Study Group
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Division of Children's and Women's healthFaculty of Medicine and Health SciencesDepartment of Paediatrics in Linköping
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