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Reference binding energies of transition metal carbides by core-level x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy free from Ar+ etching artefacts
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4898-5115
Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2837-3656
2018 (English)In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 436, p. 102-110Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We report x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) core level binding energies (BEs) for the widely-applicable groups IVb-VIb transition metal carbides (TMCs) TiC, VC, CrC, ZrC, NbC, MoC, HfC, TaC, and WC. Thin film samples are grown in the same deposition system, by dc magnetron co-sputtering from graphite and respective elemental metal targets in Ar atmosphere. To remove surface contaminations resulting from exposure to air during sample transfer from the growth chamber into the XPS system, layers are either (i) Ar+ ion-etched or (ii) UHV-annealed in situ prior to XPS analyses. High resolution XPS spectra reveal that even gentle etching affects the shape of core level signals, as well as BE values, which are systematically offset by 0.2-0.5 eV towards lower BE. These destructive effects of Ar+ ion etch become more pronounced with increasing the metal atom mass due to an increasing carbon-to-metal sputter yield ratio. Systematic analysis reveals that for each row in the periodic table (3d, 4d, and 5d) C 1s BE increases from left to right indicative of a decreased charge transfer from TM to C atoms, hence bond weakening. Moreover, C 1s BE decreases linearly with increasing carbide/metal melting point ratio. Spectra reported here, acquired from a consistent set of samples in the same instrument, should serve as a reference for true deconvolution of complex XPS cases, including multinary carbides, nitrides, and carbonitrides. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV , 2018. Vol. 436, p. 102-110
Keywords [en]
TiC; XPS; Magnetron sputtering; Binding energy; VC; CrC; NbC; ZrC; MoC; HfC; TaC; WC
National Category
Inorganic Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-145736DOI: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2017.11.264ISI: 000425723100011OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-145736DiVA, id: diva2:1192543
Note

Funding Agencies|Aforsk foundation [16-359]; Carl Tryggers Stiftelse [CTS 15:219, CTS 14:431]; Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation Scholar [KAW2016.0358]; Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF) [RIF14-0053]

Available from: 2018-03-22 Created: 2018-03-22 Last updated: 2018-04-20

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The full text will be freely available from 2019-12-05 08:48
Available from 2019-12-05 08:48

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Greczynski, GrzegorzHultman, Lars

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