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Indispensable Amino Acid-Deficient Diets Induce Seizures in Ketogenic Diet-Fed Rodents, Demonstrating a Role for Amino Acid Balance in Dietary Treatments for Epilepsy
Univ Calif Davis, CA 95616 USA.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Univ Calif Davis, CA 95616 USA.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7952-8120
Univ Calif Davis, CA 95616 USA.
Univ Calif Davis, CA 95616 USA; 2833 Marconi Ave, CA USA.
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 148, no 3, p. 480-489Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Low protein amounts are used in ketogenic diets (KDs), where an essential (indispensable) amino acid (IAA) can become limiting. Because the chemically sensitive, seizurogenic, anterior piriform cortex (APC) is excited by IAA limitation, an imbalanced KD could exacerbate seizure activity. Objective: We questioned whether dietary IAA depletion worsens seizure activity in rodents fed KDs. Methods: In a series of 6 trials, male rats or gerbils of both sexes (6-8/group) were given either control diets (CDs) appropriate for each trial, a KD, or a threonine-devoid (ThrDev) diet for amp;gt;= 7 d, and tested for seizures using various stimuli. Microchip analysis of rat APCs was also used to determine if changes in transcripts for structures relevant to seizurogenesis are affected by a ThrDev diet. Glutamate release was measured in microdialysis samples from APCs during the first meal after 7 d on a CD or a ThrDev diet. Results: Adult rats showed increased susceptibility to seizures in both chemical (58%) and electroshock (doubled) testing after 7 d on a ThrDev diet compared with CD (each trial, P amp;lt;= 0.05). Seizure-prone Mongolian gerbils had fewer seizures after receiving a KD, but exacerbated seizures (68%) after 1 meal of KD minus Thr (KD-T compared with CD, P amp;lt; 0.05). In kindled rats fed KD-T, both counts (19%) and severities (77%) of seizures were significantly elevated (KD-T compared with CD, P amp;lt; 0.05). Gene transcript changes were consistent with enhanced seizure susceptibility (7-21 net-fold increases, P = 0.045-0.001) and glutamate release into the APC was increased acutely (4-fold at 20 min, 2.6-fold at 60 min, P amp;lt; 0.05) after 7 d on a ThrDev diet. Conclusion: Seizure severity in rats and gerbils was reduced after KDs and exacerbated by ThrDev, both in KD- and CD-fed animals, consistent with the mechanistic studies. We suggest that a complete protein profile in KDs may improve IAA balance in the APC, thereby lowering the risk of seizures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER SOC NUTRITION-ASN , 2018. Vol. 148, no 3, p. 480-489
Keywords [en]
anterior piriform cortex; essential amino acid deficiency; seizure; Mongolian gerbil; rat; microdialysis; gene transcripts; glutamate
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-147127DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxx030ISI: 000427491300022PubMedID: 29546295OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-147127DiVA, id: diva2:1199519
Note

Funding Agencies|NIH [DK50347, NS37490, NS043210, DK35747]

Available from: 2018-04-20 Created: 2018-04-20 Last updated: 2018-04-20

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