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Linking energy efficiency measures in industrial compressed air systems with non-energy benefits - A review
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
2018 (English)In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 89, p. 72-87Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Compressed air is widely used in supporting industrial manufacturing processes due to its cleanness, practicality and ease of use. However, the efficiency of compressed air systems is often very low. Typically, for compressed air-driven tools only 10-15% of the energy input is utilised as useful work. Despite these recognised inefficiencies, and even though energy efficiency measures for compressed air systems normally offer several opportunities for energy savings and energy cost savings, generally, less attention has been given to the energy use and energy costs incurred in compressed air systems. Industrial energy efficiency measures might also yield additional effects, beyond the energy savings, which are denoted as non-energy benefits. This study reviews the existing base of scientific knowledge on energy efficiency in compressed air systems combined with the perspective of non-energy benefits. Even though some measures were mentioned more frequent than others, the results revealed significant variation in which measures could be undertaken to improve energy efficiency in compressed air systems. However, few publications employ a comprehensive approach by examining the entire compressed air system. Furthermore, few publications have addressed the possible additional benefits to be gained from energy efficiency measures in compressed air systems. This study provides a compilation of the various energy efficiency measures reported in the reviewed scientific literature that can be undertaken in order to improve energy efficiency in compressed air systems. It also provides a comprehensive take on the measures, including a systems perspective, by categorising them in respect to where in the compressed air system they can be undertaken. This paper suggests that energy efficiency measures in compressed air systems, and related non-energy benefits, should be studied on a specific measure level to fully understand and acknowledge their effects on the energy use of a compressed air system and possible additional effects, i.e. non-energy benefits.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD , 2018. Vol. 89, p. 72-87
Keywords [en]
Energy efficiency; Compressed air systems; Energy efficiency measures; Non-energy benefits; Industry; Systematic literature review
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-147901DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2018.02.018ISI: 000430853300008OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-147901DiVA, id: diva2:1209630
Available from: 2018-05-23 Created: 2018-05-23 Last updated: 2019-04-11
In thesis
1. Non-Energy Benefits of Industrial Energy Efficiency: Roles and Potentials
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Non-Energy Benefits of Industrial Energy Efficiency: Roles and Potentials
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Climate and environmental targets place significant requirements on energy efficiency and improved industrial energy efficiency is viewed as one of the most important means of reducing CO2 emissions and mitigating climate change. Even though efforts have been undertaken to improve energy efficiency there is still the potential for further improvements to be made. The potential is a result of that proposed energy efficiency improvement measures are not implemented, even if judged as cost-effective.

Besides improving energy efficiency, the implementation of energy efficiency improvements in industrial firms can generate additional beneficial effects: so-called non-energy benefits. Examples of non-energy benefits are: improved productivity, lower operation and maintenance costs, a better work environment, decreased waste and fewer external effects, such as lower emissions. This thesis has investigated the roles and potential of non-energy benefits in decisions on energy efficiency improvements from three perspectives: energy efficiency measures, energy efficiency investments and energy management activities.

The results of the studies presented in this thesis demonstrated that different types of non-energy benefits were observed in various areas within industrial firms due to the energy efficiency measures, energy efficiency investments and energy management activities they have implemented. Studying energy efficiency measures and investments revealed that implementing one single energy efficiency measure or investment can generate several non-energy benefits. The studies also uncovered a relationship between the non-energy benefits, i.e. chain reactions of primary, secondary and further effects, in which one benefit can generate other types of benefits. Consequently, some non-energy benefits were observed immediately after the implementation of energy efficiency measures, direct effects, while others were perceived later on, indirect effects. Furthermore, extending the perspective by including energy management activities led to the recognition of novel non-energy benefits.

The results of this thesis demonstrated that non-energy benefits were seldom acknowledged in decisions on energy efficiency improvements. However, the non-energy benefits’ character, diversity and relations among them enabled opportunities for the non-energy benefits to be included in decisions on energy efficiency in various ways. For instance, based on the results of these studies, monetised non-energy benefits could be included in investment calculations contributing to cost-effectiveness, while certain effects that are difficult to measure and quantify could be utilised qualitatively in investment evaluations as extra arguments, or, if important to the firm, as objectives for making the investment. Hence, depending on their type, non-energy benefits seemed to have different roles in decisions on industrial energy efficiency improvements.

This thesis contributed with a comprehensive approach by investigating energy efficiency improvements and the related non-energy benefits through three perspectives. By combining the results from each perspective, the view on industrial firms’ decisions on energy efficiency improvements was widened. In this thesis it is concluded that the potential of non-energy benefits in decision-making on industrial energy efficiency improvements lies in the utilisation of all types of non-energy benefits and to consider all the roles that non-energy benefits may have. By utilising knowledge on non-energy benefits along with their roles observed in relation to previous implementations of energy efficiency improvements, non-energy benefits can impact decisions on new implementations.

Abstract [sv]

Effektivisering av industrins energianvändning ses som ett av de viktigaste redskapen för att minska koldioxidutsläppen i syfte att mildra klimatpåverkan och nå uppsatta klimat- och miljömål. Konkurrens och resursbrist driver industrin till att effektivisera och kopplingen mellan energi och tillverkningsprocesser i företagen betyder att energieffektivisering är av vikt då den även bidrar till effektivisering generellt inom företaget. Trots detta genomförs inte alla föreslagna åtgärder även om de är kostnadseffektiva, vilket gör att det finns en potential till ytterligare industriell energieffektivisering.

Förutom energibesparing och energikostnadsbesparing kan implementering av energieffektiviserande åtgärder även ge ytterligare positiva effekter för företaget, så kallade mervärden (eng. non-energy benefits), exempelvis i form av ökad produktivitet, ökad livslängd för maskiner och utrustning, förbättrad arbetsmiljö samt minskad mängd utsläpp och avfall. Denna avhandling har studerat mervärdens roller och potential i beslut kring energieffektiviserande åtgärder och investeringar samt energiledningsaktiviteter.

Resultaten visade att implementering av energieffektiviserande åtgärder och investeringar samt energiledningsaktiviteter gav flera olika typer av mervärden observerade på olika nivåer och inom olika delar av verksamheten i industriföretag. Genom att studera mervärden ur flera perspektiv synliggjordes nya typer av mervärden samt att implementering av en enstaka energieffektiviserande åtgärd kan generera ett flertal mervärden av olika typ. Vidare sågs även samband mellan olika mervärden, dvs att ett mervärde gav upphov till ett flertal andra mervärden.

Resultaten av dessa studier visade att användningen av mervärden vid beslut kring energieffektivisering begränsas av att många mervärden är svåra att mäta och kvantifiera. Trots att många mervärden var svåra att värdera i pengar och inkludera i investeringskalkyler, visade resultaten att mervärden ibland användes kvalitativt i investeringsunderlag som extra argument. Om mervärdet var av stor vikt kunde det till och med anses vara del utav syftet med en energieffektiviserande investering. Detta visade på mervärdens olika roller beroende på deras karaktär samt hur viktiga de ansågs vara för företaget.

Denna avhandling har studerat energieffektiviseringar och relaterade mervärden ur tre perspektiv. Genom att kombinera resultaten från varje perspektiv erhölls en bredare syn på beslut kring energieffektivisering. Resultaten i denna avhandling visade att mervärden kan bidra på olika sätt i beslut kring energieffektiviseringar beroende på deras olika roller samt att mervärdens potential i sådana beslut beror på om och hur mervärdens olika roller beaktas och används. Genom att använda kunskap om mervärden och deras olika roller som observerats i samband med tidigare energieffektiviserande implementeringar, kan mervärden bidra till att påverka beslut vid planering av nya energieffektiviserande implementeringar.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2019. p. 114
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1980
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-156297 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-156297 (DOI)9789176851067 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-05-29, ACAS, Hus A, Campus Valla, Linköping, 10:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-04-25 Created: 2019-04-11 Last updated: 2019-04-30Bibliographically approved

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