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Perspective Correct Hand-held Augmented Reality for Improved Graphics and Interaction
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

With Augmented Reality, also termed AR, a view of the real world is augmented by superimposing computer-generated graphics, thereby enriching or enhancing the perception of the reality. Today, lots of applications benefit from AR in different areas, such as education, medicine, navigation, construction, gaming, and multiple other areas, using primarily head-mounted AR displays and AR on hand-held smart devices. Tablets and phones are highly suitable for AR, as they are equipped with high resolution screens, good cameras and powerful processing units, while being readily available to both industry and home use. They are used with video see-through AR, were the live view of the world is captured by a camera in real time and subsequently presented together with the computer graphics on the display.

In this thesis I put forth our recent work on improving video see-through Augmented Reality graphics and interaction for hand-held devices by applying and utilizing user perspective. On the rendering side, we introduce a geometry-based user perspective rending method aiming to align the on screen content with the real view of the world visible around the screen. Furthermore, we introduce a device calibration system to compensate for misalignment between system parts. On the interaction side we introduce two wand-like direct 3D pose manipulation techniques based on this user perspective. We also modified a selection technique and introduced a new one suitable to be used with our introduced manipulation techniques. Finally, I present several formal user studies, evaluating the introduced techniques and comparing them with concurrent state-of-the-art alternatives.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2018. , p. 69
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1931
National Category
Media Engineering Human Computer Interaction Media and Communication Technology Interaction Technologies Computer Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-148005DOI: 10.3384/diss.diva-148005ISBN: 9789176853177 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-148005DiVA, id: diva2:1209668
Public defence
2018-05-29, Norrköpings visualiseringscenter C, Kungsgatan 54, Norrköping, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research Available from: 2018-05-23 Created: 2018-05-23 Last updated: 2018-05-23Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A perspective geometry approach to user-perspective rendering in hand-held video see-through augmented reality
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A perspective geometry approach to user-perspective rendering in hand-held video see-through augmented reality
2014 (English)In: VRST '14 Proceedings of the 20th ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology, SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN , 2014, p. 207-208Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Video see-through Augmented Reality (V-AR) displays a video feed overlaid with information, co-registered with the displayed objects. In this paper we consider the type of V-AR that is based on a hand-held device with a fixed camera. In most of the VA-R applications the view displayed on the screen is completely determined by the orientation of the camera, i.e., the device-perspective rendering; the screen displays what the camera sees. The alternative method is to use the relative pose of the user's view and the camera, i.e., the user-perspective rendering. In this paper we present an approach to the user perspective V-AR using 3D projective geometry. The view is adjusted to the user's perspective and rendered on the screen, making it an augmented window. We created and tested a running prototype based on our method.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN, 2014
Keywords
Augmented Reality; Video see-through; Dynamic frustum; User-perspective
National Category
Media Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123167 (URN)10.1145/2671015.2671127 (DOI)000364709300012 ()978-1-4503-3253-8 (ISBN)
Conference
The ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology (VRST) 2014
Available from: 2015-12-07 Created: 2015-12-04 Last updated: 2018-05-23Bibliographically approved
2. Device Registration for 3D Geometry-Based User-Perspective Rendering in Hand-Held Video See-Through Augmented Reality
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Device Registration for 3D Geometry-Based User-Perspective Rendering in Hand-Held Video See-Through Augmented Reality
2015 (English)In: AUGMENTED AND VIRTUAL REALITY, AVR 2015, SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN , 2015, Vol. 9254, p. 151-167Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

User-perspective rendering in Video See-through Augmented Reality (V-AR) creates a view that always shows what is behind the screen, from the users point of view. It is used for better registration between the real and virtual world instead of the traditional device-perspective rendering which displays what the camera sees. There is a small number of approaches towards user-perspective rendering that over all improve the registration between the real world, the video captured from real world that is displayed on the screen and the augmentations. There are still some registration errors that cause misalignment in the user-perspective rendering. One source of error is from the device registration which, based on the used tracking method, can be the misalignment between the camera and the screen and also the tracked frame of reference that the screen and the camera are attached to it. In this paper we first describe a method for the user perspective V-AR based on 3D projective geometry. We then address the device registration problem in user perspective rendering by presenting two methods: First, for estimating the misalignment between the camera and the screen. Second, for estimating the misalignment between the camera and the tracked frame.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN, 2015
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743 (print), 1611-3349 (online) ; 9254
Keywords
Augmented Reality; Video see-through; Dynamic frustum; User-perspective
National Category
Media Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123167 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-22888-4_12 (DOI)000364709300012 ()978-3-319-22888-4; 978-3-319-22887-7 (ISBN)
Conference
2nd International Conference on Augmented and Virtual Reality (SALENTO AVR)
Available from: 2015-12-07 Created: 2015-12-04 Last updated: 2018-05-23
3. A User Study on Touch Interaction for User-Perspective Rendering in Hand-Held Video See-Through Augmented Reality
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A User Study on Touch Interaction for User-Perspective Rendering in Hand-Held Video See-Through Augmented Reality
2016 (English)In: Augmented Reality, Virtual Reality, and Computer Graphics: Third International Conference, AVR 2016, Lecce, Italy, June 15-18, 2016. Proceedings, Part II / [ed] Lucio Tommaso De Paolis, Antonio Mongelli, Springer, 2016, p. 304-317Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a user study on touch interaction with hand-held Video See-through Augmented Reality (V-AR). In particular, the commonly used Device Perspective Rendering (DPR) is compared with User Perspective Rendering (UPR) with respect to both performance and user experience and preferences. We present two user study tests designed to mimic the tasks that are used in various AR applications.

Looking for an object and selecting when it’s found, is one of the most used tasks in AR software. Our first test focuses on comparing UPR and DPR in a simple find and selection task. Manipulating the pose of a virtual object is another commonly used task in AR. The second test focuses on multi-touch interaction for 6 DoF object pose manipulation through UPR and DPR.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2016
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349 ; 9769
Keywords
User perspective rendering, Augmented reality, Touch interaction, Video see-through
National Category
Human Computer Interaction Interaction Technologies Computer Sciences Media and Communication Technology Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-132956 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-40651-0_25 (DOI)000389495700025 ()978-3-319-40651-0 (ISBN)978-3-319-40650-3 (ISBN)
Conference
Third International Conference on Augmented Reality, Virtual Reality and Computer Graphics (SALENTO AVR 2016), Otranto, Lecce, Italy, June 15-18, 2016
Available from: 2016-12-05 Created: 2016-12-05 Last updated: 2018-05-23Bibliographically approved
4. A study on improving close and distant device movement pose manipulation for hand-held augmented reality
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A study on improving close and distant device movement pose manipulation for hand-held augmented reality
2016 (English)In: VRST '16 Proceedings of the 22nd ACM Conference on Virtual Reality Software and Technology, ACM Press, 2016, p. 121-128Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Hand-held smart devices are equipped with powerful processing units, high resolution screens and cameras, that in combination makes them suitable for video see-through Augmented Reality. Many Augmented Reality applications require interaction, such as selection and 3D pose manipulation. One way to perform intuitive, high precision 3D pose manipulation is by direct or indirect mapping of device movement.

There are two approaches to device movement interaction; one fixes the virtual object to the device, which therefore becomes the pivot point for the object, thus makes it difficult to rotate without translate. The second approach avoids latter issue by considering rotation and translation separately, relative to the object's center point. The result of this is that the object instead moves out of view for yaw and pitch rotations.

In this paper we study these two techniques and compare them with a modification where user perspective rendering is used to solve the rotation issues. The study showed that the modification improves speed as well as both perceived control and intuitiveness among the subjects.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ACM Press, 2016
Keywords
device interaction, augmented reality, video seethrough, user-perspective, device perspective, user study
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-132954 (URN)10.1145/2993369.2993380 (DOI)000391514400018 ()978-1-4503-4491-3 (ISBN)
Conference
The 22nd ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology (VRST), Munich, Germany, November 02-04, 2016
Available from: 2016-12-05 Created: 2016-12-05 Last updated: 2018-05-23Bibliographically approved
5. Popular Performance Metrics for Evaluation of Interaction in Virtual and Augmented Reality
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Popular Performance Metrics for Evaluation of Interaction in Virtual and Augmented Reality
2017 (English)In: 2017 International Conference on Cyberworlds (CW) (2017), IEEE Computer Society, 2017, p. 206-209Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Augmented and Virtual Reality applications provide environments in which users can immerse themselves in a fully or partially virtual world and interact with virtual objects or user interfaces. User-based, formal evaluation is needed to objectively compare interaction techniques, and find their value in different use cases, and user performance metrics are the key to being able to compare those techniques in a fair and effective manner. In this paper we explore evaluation principles used for or developed explicitly for virtual environments, and survey quality metrics, based on 15 current, important publications on interaction techniques for virtual environments. We check, categorize and analyze the formal user studies, and establish and present baseline performance metrics used for evaluation on interaction techniques in VR and AR.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2017
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-143586 (URN)10.1109/CW.2017.25 (DOI)978-1-5386-2089-2 (ISBN)978-1-5386-2090-8 (ISBN)
Conference
2017 International Conference on Cyberworlds (CW),Chester, United Kingdom Sept. 20, 2017 to Sept. 22, 2017
Available from: 2017-12-11 Created: 2017-12-11 Last updated: 2018-05-23

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Samini, Ali

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Output format
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  • asciidoc
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