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Tracking of Ground Vehicles: Evaluation of Tracking Performance Using Different Sensors and Filtering Techniques
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control.
2018 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

It is crucial to find a good balance between positioning accuracy and cost when developing navigation systems for ground vehicles. In open sky or even in a semi-urban environment, a single global navigation satellite system (GNSS) constellation performs sufficiently well. However, the positioning accuracy decreases drastically in urban environments. Because of the limitation in tracking performance for standalone GNSS, particularly in cities, many solutions are now moving toward integrated systems that combine complementary sensors. In this master thesis the improvement of tracking performance for a low-cost ground vehicle navigation system is evaluated when complementary sensors are added and different filtering techniques are used.

How the GNSS aided inertial navigation system (INS) is used to track ground vehicles is explained in this thesis. This has shown to be a very effective way of tracking a vehicle through GNSS outages. Measurements from an accelerometer and a gyroscope are used as inputs to inertial navigation equations. GNSS measurements are then used to correct the tracking solution and to estimate the biases in the inertial sensors. When velocity constraints on the vehicle’s motion in the y- and z-axis are included, the GNSS aided INS has shown very good performance, even during long GNSS outages.

Two versions of the Rauch-Tung-Striebel (RTS) smoother and a particle filter (PF) version of the GNSS aided INS have also been implemented and evaluated. The PF has shown to be computationally demanding in comparison with the other approaches and a real-time implementation on the considered embedded system is not doable. The RTS smoother has shown to give a smoother trajectory but a lot of extra information needs to be stored and the position accuracy is not significantly improved.

Moreover, map matching has been combined with GNSS measurements and estimates from the GNSS aided INS. The Viterbi algorithm is used to output the the road segment identification numbers of the most likely path and then the estimates are matched to the closest position of these roads. A suggested solution to acquire reliable tracking with high accuracy in all environments is to run the GNSS aided INS in real-time in the vehicle and simultaneously send the horizontal position coordinates to a back office where map information is kept and map matching is performed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2018. , p. 53
Keywords [en]
GNSS aided INS, Sensor Fusion, Tracking, Ground Vehicles, Map Matching, Viterbi Algorithm, RTS Smoother
National Category
Control Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-148432ISRN: LiTH-ISY-EX--18/5123--SEOAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-148432DiVA, id: diva2:1216087
External cooperation
Kapsch TrafficCom AB
Subject / course
Automatic Control
Presentation
2018-06-07, Stora konferensrummet, Visionen, Linköping, 15:30 (Swedish)
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2018-06-12 Created: 2018-06-11 Last updated: 2018-06-12Bibliographically approved

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CiteExportLink to record
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Citation style
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Output format
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