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On the Total Energy Efficiency of Cell-Free Massive MIMO
Institute of Electronics, Communications and Information Technology, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast, U.K..ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3367-2220
School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9317-9980
Institute of Electronics, Communications and Information Technology, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast, U.K..ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4703-4836
Institute of Electronics, Communications and Information Technology, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast, U.K..ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9235-7741
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2018 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Green Communications and Networking, ISSN 2473-2400, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 25-39Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We consider the cell-free massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) downlink, where a very large number of distributed multiple-antenna access points (APs) serve many single-antenna users in the same time-frequency resource. A simple (distributed) conjugate beamforming scheme is applied at each AP via the use of local channel state information (CSI). This CSI is acquired through time-division duplex operation and the reception of uplink training signals transmitted by the users. We derive a closed-form expression for the spectral efficiency taking into account the effects of channel estimation errors and power control. This closed-form result enables us to analyze the effects of backhaul power consumption, the number of APs, and the number of antennas per AP on the total energy efficiency, as well as, to design an optimal power allocation algorithm. The optimal power allocation algorithm aims at maximizing the total energy efficiency, subject to a per-user spectral efficiency constraint and a per-AP power constraint. Compared with the equal power control, our proposed power allocation scheme can double the total energy efficiency. Furthermore, we propose AP selections schemes, in which each user chooses a subset of APs, to reduce the power consumption caused by the backhaul links. With our proposed AP selection schemes, the total energy efficiency increases significantly, especially for large numbers of APs. Moreover, under a requirement of good quality-of-service for all users, cell-free massive MIMO outperforms the colocated counterpart in terms of energy efficiency.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2018. Vol. 2, no 1, p. 25-39
Keywords [en]
MIMO communication, antenna arrays, array signal processing, channel estimation, energy conservation, power consumption, telecommunication power management, wireless channels, AP selection schemes, backhaul power consumption, cell-free massive MIMO, cell-free massive multiple input multiple output downlink, channel estimation errors, closed-form expression, conjugate beamforming scheme, distributed multiple-antenna access points, optimal power allocation algorithm, per-AP power constraint, per-user spectral efficiency constraint, power allocation scheme, power control, quality of service, single-antenna users, spectral efficiency, time-division duplex operation, total energy efficiency, Antennas, Downlink, MIMO, Power demand, Uplink, conjugate beamforming, energy efficiency, massive MIMO, network MIMO
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-149660DOI: 10.1109/TGCN.2017.2770215OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-149660DiVA, id: diva2:1233125
Available from: 2018-07-16 Created: 2018-07-16 Last updated: 2018-08-10Bibliographically approved

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Ngo, Hien QuocTran, Le-NamDuong, Trung Q.Matthaiou, MichailLarsson, Erik G.
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