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Affective and ergonomic quality of a new bedding product
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2008 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

It is essential that design of bed clothes in healthcare and other industries e.g. hospitality are suitable for the personnel when they perform bedding tasks. The bed clothes are important not just for patients’ experience of healthcare service, but also for serving as tools for nurses satisfaction and performance in the bed making task. Ergonomics and work load of the nurses are directly affected from design and development of product characteristics (material, weight etc.) and related tasks to make the bedding. Still, there is a question of how bed making can be improved considering from aspects related to work (e.g. time), ergonomics and emotional satisfaction for nursing personnel.

This study focuses on affective and ergonomic effects of making patient beds for nursing personnel, by using an Affective (Kansei) Engineering approach comparing a new bedding system with the conventional bedding. In principle, the main objective is to understand the nurses´ perceptions towards the bed making task with the new product compared with conventional bed clothes (conventional bedding material), based on affective, ergonomics and discomfort criteria.

Fourteen female nurses (N=14) employed at the heart intensive care unit of a hospital in western Sweden participated in the study. Qualitative and quantitative methods were employed to investigate the bedding systems. All participants performed three trials with the new and the conventional bedding in randomized order. Affective evaluation included measurement of subjective responses with Kansei words (expressing feelings), measurement of overall experiences and comparison between the two bedding systems. Productivity related measurements included task descriptions and measurement of work cycle times. Measurements of physical load included calculation of static compression forces for the postures of forward bending and hand elevation above shoulders, related time durations and frequencies and as well as discomfort evaluations.


In order to examine participants’ affective responses paired samples t- test was employed. Correlation analysis was applied to test associations between Kansei words. Independent sample t-test was used to analyze the bedding time durations. Paired samples t- tests were performed to compare the new and the conventional system regarding compression forces in forward bending, hand elevation above shoulders, frequencies and time durations for the two postures and to evaluate overall experiences.Wilcoxon signed rank test was performed to investigate participants’ perceived levels of discomfort for different body parts. For statistical analysis of data SPSS 15.0 (SPSS, 2006) and Minitab 15.0 were used. For the analysis of physical loads, the University of Michigan's 3D Static Strength Prediction Program (3DSSPP) (6.0.2) was used to compute static compression forces on lower back for forward bending on the chosen each test condition.



Study conclusions are as follows: Affective preferences were significantly positive towards the new bedding. For the new bedding system, Kansei word "quality" was positively correlated to "nice to touch". For the conventional bedding system, "quality" was positively correlated to "comfort" and "soft". The time analysis showed that significantly less time was needed to make a patient bed with the new bedding system. Results have shown significantly decreased workloads with the new bedding system. One person is able to do the new bedding with fewer tasks. The new bedding required higher compression forces on the lower back compared to conventional bedding. However, all compression forces were below the limits according to the NIOSH guidelines. Frequency and time durations of forward bending are decreased with the new bedding compared to the conventional bedding. Moreover, hand elevation above shoulders is not needed with the new bedding system while it is necessary with the conventional bedding. The discomfort evalutions indicate that the new bedding gave significantly less neck and shoulder discomfort. The participants´ overall preferences were found significantly positive for the new bedding system. Further overall comparisons on the same scale confirmed that the new bedding system is preferred compared to the conventional bedding system. To conclude, the current study showed that the new bedding product was found more functional and aesthetically appealing and satisfying as well ergonomically designed compared with conventional bedding by the nursing personnel.



Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. , 55 p.
, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling
Affective Engineering, bed making, spinal compression, forward bending.
National Category
Engineering and Technology
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15594ISRN: LIU-IEI-R--08/0039—SEOAI: diva2:126700
Available from: 2008-11-20 Created: 2008-11-20 Last updated: 2009-01-28Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Engineering Feelings of Quality
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Engineering Feelings of Quality
2008 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

There is an increasing emphasis on developing systematical research approaches for design of products that appeal to people’s emotions and values. This thesis proposes methodological developments for investigating people’s subjective emotional needs and values towards quality and explores interactions of related physical design attributes for product design.

The overall aim of the licentiate thesis is to gain an understanding on Affective engineering of products through exploring the concept of quality feeling and to develop methodological approaches for this. Quality feeling can be described as a holistic concept considering individuals’ perceptions, expectations, experiences, physical and psychological expressions for a product or service. Affective Engineering methodology aims at translating human psychological processes, such as feelings and emotions, into appropriate product design attributes, such as size, shape, and surface characteristics.

The thesis presents three methodological approaches when evaluating products for affective engineering and one approach for an interactive product design support system development.

The first study presented deals with feelings of quality for reach truck operator’s cabin components. Components that would convey to give a higher total quality feeling were identified and improvement opportunities were prioritized. The second study presented is based on developing an interactive affective design and decision support system software for design of the steering wheel from drivers’ individual and shared preferences. In the third study affective values arising from judgments for important feelings of quality is the study basis. The author presents research on identifying interactions of design attributes for affective values in waiting areas of primary health care services.

Further, a new approach for applying Affective Engineering in design of complex contexts is proposed.The proposed approach aims to handle contexts where feelings and design attributes have complex interactions for products and services that give almost an infinite number of design alternatives that are difficult to handle in traditional Kansei Engineering studies. With this thesis also an interactive product design and decision support system software is developed for steering wheel design and proposed for educational and industrial use. The proposed system works based on linking product design attributes to human feelings by applying Genetic algorithms and provides potential basis for future product development and improvements.

This thesis has also contributed with affective design recommendations applicable for vehicle cabins and waiting areas in primary health care. Moreover, a number of existing methods in Affective Engineering have been tested and methodological experience is drawn, including advantages, disadvantages and limitations of using these methods.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2008. 73 p.
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1365
, LIU-TEK-LIC, ISSN 0280-7971 0 ; 2008:23
Product experience, Affective engineering, Kansei Engineering, Emotional design
National Category
Engineering and Technology
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15720 (URN)LIU-TEK-LIC-2008:23 (Local ID)978-91-7393-898-3 (ISBN)LIU-TEK-LIC-2008:23 (Archive number)LIU-TEK-LIC-2008:23 (OAI)
2008-05-09, A-35, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:15 (English)
Available from: 2008-12-16 Created: 2008-12-01 Last updated: 2009-04-23Bibliographically approved

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