Designing Urban Road Congestion Charging Systems: Models and Heuristic Solution Approaches
2008 (English)Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
The question of how to design a congestion pricing scheme is difficult to answer and involves a number of complex decisions. This thesis is devoted to the quantitative parts of designing a congestion pricing scheme with link tolls in an urban car traffic network. The problem involves finding the number of tolled links, the link toll locations and their corresponding toll level. The road users are modeled in a static framework, with elastic travel demand.
Assuming the toll locations to be fixed, we recognize a level setting problem as to find toll levels which maximize the social surplus. A heuristic procedure based on sensitivity analysis is developed to solve this optimization problem. In the numerical examples the heuristic is shown to converge towards the optimum for cases when all links are tollable, and when only some links are tollable.
We formulate a combined toll location and level setting problem as to find both toll locations and toll levels which maximize the net social surplus, which is the social surplus minus the cost of collecting the tolls. The collection cost is assumed to be given for each possible toll location, and to be independent of toll level and traffic flow. We develop a new heuristic method which is based on repeated solutions of an approximation to the combined toll location and level setting problem. Also, a known heuristic method for locating a fixed number of toll facilities is extended, to find the optimal number of facilities to locate. Both heuristics are evaluated on two small networks, where our approximation procedure shows the best results.
Our approximation procedure is also employed on the Sioux Falls network. The result is compared with different judgmental closed cordon structures, and the solution suggested by our method clearly improves the net social surplus more than any of the judgmental cordons.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Norrköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2008. , 102 p.
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1391
transport modeling, congestion pricing, network design, bi-level optimization, toll locations, traffic assignment, user equilibrium, collection cost
Engineering and Technology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15747Local ID: LIU-TEK-LIC-2008:49ISBN: 978-91-7393-732-0OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-15747DiVA: diva2:127167
2008-12-05, TP1, Hus Täppna, Campus Norrköping, Linköpings universitet, Norrköping, 10:00 (Swedish)
Karlström, Anders, Universitetslektor
Lundgren, Jan, Professor