High Resolution Analysis of Halftone Prints: A Colorimetric and Multispectral Study
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
To reproduce color images in print, the continuous tone image is first transformed into a binary halftone image, producing various colors by discrete dots with varying area coverage. In halftone prints on paper, physical and optical dot gains generally occur, making the print look darker than expected, and making the modeling of halftone color reproduction a challenge. Most available models are based on macroscopic color measurements, averaging the reflectance over an area that is large in relation to the halftone dots. The aim of this study is to go beyond the macroscopic approach, and study halftone color reproduction on a micro-scale level, using high resolution images of halftone prints. An experimental imaging system, combining the accuracy of color measurement instruments with a high spatial resolution, opens up new possibilities to study and analyze halftone color prints.
The experimental image acquisition offers a great flexibility in the image acquisition setup. Besides trichromatic RGB filters, the system is also equipped with a set of 7 narrowband filters, for multi-channel images. A thorough calibration and characterization of all the components in the imaging system is described. The spectral sensitivity of the CCD camera, which can not be derived by direct measurements, is estimated using least squares regression. To reconstruct spectral reflectance and colorimetric values from the device response, two conceptually different approaches are used. In the model-based characterization, the physical model describing the image acquisition process is inverted, to reconstruct spectral reflectance from the recorded device response. In the empirical characterization, the characteristics of the individual components are ignored, and the functions are derived by relating the device response for a set of test colors to the corresponding colorimetric and spectral measurements, using linear and polynomial least squares regression techniques.
Micro-scale images, referring to images whose resolution is high in relation to the resolution of the halftone, allow for measurements of the individual halftone dots, as well as the paper between them. To capture the characteristics of large populations of halftone dots, reflectance histograms are computed as well as 3D histograms in CIEXYZ color space. The micro-scale measurements reveal that the reflectance for the halftone dots, as well as the paper between the dots, is not constant, but varies with the dot area coverage. By incorporating the varying micro-reflectance in an expanded Murray-Davies model, the nonlinearity caused by optical dot gain can be accounted for without applying the nonphysical exponentiation of the reflectance values, as in the commonly used Yule-Nielsen model.
Due to their different intrinsic nature, physical and optical dot gains need to be treated separately when modeling the outcome of halftone prints. However, in measurements of reflection colors, physical and optical dot gains always co-exist, making the separation a difficult task. Different methods to separate the physical and optical dot gain are evaluated, using spectral reflectance measurements, transmission scans and micro-scale images. Further, the relation between the physical dot gain and the halftone dot size is investigated, demonstrated with FM halftones of various print resolutions. The physical dot gain exhibits a clear correlation with the dot size and the dot gain increase is proportional to the increase in print resolution. The experimental observations are followed by discussions and a theoretical explanation.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2009. , 182 p.
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1229
Color imaging, Multispectral imaging, Halftone print, Dot gain
Computer Vision and Robotics (Autonomous Systems)
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15888ISBN: 978-91-7393-727-6OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-15888DiVA: diva2:128001
2009-01-16, K3, Kåkenhus, Campus Norrköping, Linköpings universitet, Norrköping, 10:15 (English)
Hauta- Kasari, Markku, Docent
Kruse, Björn, Professor