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Business model diversification in the sharing economy: The case of GoMore
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, 3584 CS, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
2019 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 215, p. 1059-1069Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper improves our understanding of the rise of the sharing economy by shedding light on the current trend in the mobility sector for new firms to operate different business models simultaneously. A shared mobility platform is used as a case study to examine the underexplored process of diversification into a business model portfolio, and test the theoretical proposition that successful business model configurations maximize the existing resources of a firm to establish hard-to-imitate capabilities and create sustainable competitive advantage. Data collection was conducted through interviews with key informants from the platform management team and a document analysis. The analysis shows the evolution, diversification, and expansion of the sharing economy startup from a non-profit ridesharing website to a for-profit matchmaking platform offering peer-to-peer (P2P) mobility solutions (ridesharing and short-term car rental) alongside business-to-consumer (B2C) access-based services (long-term leasing). The analysis suggests that each new service subsequently offered by the case firm aimed to increase the supply of peer providers in its existing P2P business models. The business model portfolio relies on six key resources (member community, platform technology, user data, customer support, local management teams, and partners) and three key capabilities (leverage of the community’s assets, technological improvement, and user engagement), which are shared and redeployed across business models and geographic locations to improve matchmaking quality, enable growth, and increase profits.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019. Vol. 215, p. 1059-1069
Keywords [en]
Sharing economy, Business model diversification, Business model portfolio, Shared mobility platform
National Category
Business Administration Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-154006DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.01.114ISI: 000459358300090OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-154006DiVA, id: diva2:1281323
Available from: 2019-01-22 Created: 2019-01-22 Last updated: 2019-03-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. The Heart and Wallet Paradox of Collaborative Consumption
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Heart and Wallet Paradox of Collaborative Consumption
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Collaborative consumption is a peer-to-peer (P2P) exchange of goods and services facilitated by online platforms. This phenomenon is driven by technologies that make it easier and cheaper to redistribute and share the use of existing but underutilized private resources. It is embedded in the paradigm shift in society towards access-based consumption, in opposition to acquisition and private individual ownership. Firms take on the new role of enabler of collaborative consumption by developing online platforms and smartphone apps that facilitate P2P exchanges between people in their roles of peer providers and consumers.

Collaborative consumption is anchored to two opposite logics of consumption: sharing and market exchange. This results in the Heart & Wallet paradox with its tensions between a pro-social orientation and communal norms on the one hand, and a for-profit orientation and market norms on the other hand. While diverse societal and regulatory aspects of the so-called “sharing economy” are discussed in popular debate, scholars have yet to catch up on the theoretical implications from these influences on business activities and consumer behavior.

This thesis aims to improve the understanding of collaborative consumption by contributing to the conceptualization of this new phenomenon as intertwined with coexisting sharing and market logics. The research is based on two papers taking the perspective of the firms operating online platforms that facilitate collaborative consumption, and two papers taking the perspective of the peer providers and consumers participating in P2P exchanges. The context of shared mobility (i.e. P2P car rental, ridesharing) is explored through three cases, using interviews with online platform managers and participants in collaborative consumption, participant observation, a netnography, a cross-sectional survey of platform users, and document analyses.

This thesis situates collaborative consumption in the access paradigm, based on the temporal redistribution and monetization of private resources facilitated via online platforms, while nurturing the feelings of communal belonging and the sharing ethos embedded in P2P exchanges. Investigating the tensions of the Heart & Wallet paradox of collaborative consumption, I highlight the opposing rationales between the sharing logic of the original nonmonetary practices initiated by grassroots communities and the market logic of platform business models. I further emphasize the key function of communal identification for participants and the role of perceived sharing authenticity—the pitfalls of sharewashing for firms. This thesis contributes to service research by advancing the understanding of P2P exchanges and the conceptualization of collaborative consumption.

Abstract [sv]

Kollaborativ konsumtion bygger på P2P-utbyte (peer-to-peer) av varor och tjänster genom online-plattformar. Detta fenomen drivs på av teknologi som gör det enklare och billigare att dela användningen av befintliga men underutnyttjade privata resurser. Det är inbäddat i paradigmskiftet i samhället mot tillgångsbaserad konsumtion, i motsats till privat ägande. Företag får en ny roll som underlättare av kollaborativ konsumtion där privatpersoner istället intar rollerna som både leverantörer och konsumenter.

Kollaborativ konsumtion är förankrat i två motsatta logiker: delning och varuutbyte. Detta resulterar i Heart & Wallet-paradoxen med spänningar emellan en pro-social orientering som bygger på gemensamma normer, och en vinstdrivande orientering baserad på marknadsnormer. Medan det funnits en debatt kring den så kallade ”delningsekonomin” och dess samhälleliga och legala implikationer, så har den akademiska debatten ännu ej hunnit ta fart kring dess påverkan på affärsverksamhet och konsumentbeteende.

Avhandlingen syftar till att förbättra förståelsen av kollaborativ konsumtion genom att bidra till konceptualiseringen av detta fenomen där delningslogik och marknadslogik samexisterar. Avhandlingen är baserad på två artiklar som undersöker kollaborativ konsumtion från ett företagsperspektiv och två artiklar där begreppet studeras ur de deltagande individernas perspektiv. Kontexten ”shared mobility” (d.v.s. privat biluthyrning, samåkning) undersöks i tre organisationer med hjälp av intervjuer med anställda på onlineplattformar och deltagare i kollaborativ konsumtion, deltagarobservationer, en nätnografi, en tvärsnittsundersökning av plattformsanvändare och dokumentanalyser.

Avhandlingen placerar kollaborativ konsumtion i paradigmet kring studier av tillgång till tjänster, där den temporära omfördelningen i tid och monetariseringen av privata resurser underlättas via online-plattformar, samtidigt som den gemensamma tillhörigheten och det ”delningsetos” som finns inbäddat i P2P-utbyten uppmuntras. Genom att undersöka spänningarna i Heart & Wallet-paradoxen i kollaborativ konsumtion, belyser jag motsättningarna mellan delningslogiken från gräsrotsrörelsen och marknadslogiken i plattformsaffärsmodellerna. Vidare diskuterar jag den centrala rollen av ”communal identification”-upplevelsen av autencitet vid delning av resurser för kollaborativ konsumtion. Avhandlingen bidrar till tjänsteforskningen kring tillgång till tjänster genom en ökad förståelse av P2P-utbyten och en konceptualisering av kollaborativ konsumtion.  

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2019. p. 133
Series
Linköping Studies in Arts and Sciences, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 763
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-154781 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-154781 (DOI)9789176851166 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-03-15, ACAS, A-huset, Campus Valla, Linköping, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-02-26 Created: 2019-02-26 Last updated: 2019-03-07Bibliographically approved

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The full text will be freely available from 2021-04-01 10:34
Available from 2021-04-01 10:34

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Guyader, Hugo

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