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Performance and Autonomic Responses during Motion Sickness
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2530-4126
Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
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2009 (English)In: Human Factors, ISSN 0018-7208, E-ISSN 1547-8181, Vol. 51, no 1, 56-66 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate how motion sickness, triggered by an optokinetic drum, affects short term memory performance and to explore autonomic responses to perceived motion sickness.

Background: Previous research has found motion sickness to decrease performance, but it is not known how short term memory in particular is affected.

Method: Thirty-eight healthy participants performed a listening span test while seated in a rotating optokinetic drum. Measurements of motion sickness, performance, heart rate, skin conductance, blood volume pulse, and pupil size were performed simultaneously throughout the experiment.

Results: A total of 16 participants terminated the trial due to severe nausea, while the other 22 endured the full 25 minutes. Perceived motion sickness increased over time in both groups, but less among those who endured the trial. Short term memory performance decreased towards the end for those who terminated, while it increased for the other group. Results from the measured autonomic responses were ambiguous.

Conclusion: The present study concludes that performance, measured as short term memory, declines as perceived motion sickness progresses.

Application: This research has potential implications for command and control personnel in risk of developing motion sickness.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 51, no 1, 56-66 p.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15916DOI: 10.1177/0018720809332848OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-15916DiVA: diva2:128344
Available from: 2008-12-16 Created: 2008-12-16 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Psychophysiological and Performance Aspects on Motion Sickness
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Psychophysiological and Performance Aspects on Motion Sickness
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Rörelsesjuka, ingen sjukdom men väl en naturlig respons i en onaturlig miljö!
Abstract [en]

Motion sickness is not an illness, but rather a natural autonomic response to an unfamiliar or specific stimulus. The bodily responses to motion sickness are highly individual and contextually dependent, making them difficult to predict. The initial autonomic responses are similar to the ones demonstrated when under stress. When under the influence of motion sickness, motivation and ability to perform tasks or duties are limited. However, little is known about how specific cognitive functions are affected. Furthermore, standard mitigation strategies involve medications that induce fatigue or strategies that require cognitive capabilities. Both of them may result in reduced capability to perform assigned tasks or duties. Hence, there is a need for alternative mitigation strategies.

The aim of the thesis was to study psychophysiological and performance aspects on motion sickness. The long-term goal is to provide strategies for mitigation and prevention of motion sickness by identifying psychophysiological responses as predictors for both wellbeing and performance. This thesis comprises four studies, in which 91 participants were exposed to two different motion sickness stimuli, either an optokinetic drum or a motion platform. Before the tests, a method for extracting fixations from eye-tracking data was developed as a prerequisite for studying fixations as a possible mitigation strategy for reducing motion sickness. During exposure to stimuli that triggers motion sickness, performance was studied by testing short-term memory and encoding and retrieval. In the final study, the effects of an artificial sound horizon were studied with respect to its potential to subconsciously function as a mitigating source.

The results of the measurements of the psychophysiological responses were in accordance with previous research, confirming the ambiguity and high individuality of the responses as well as their contextual dependencies. To study fixations, a centroid mode algorithm proved to be the best way to generate fixations from eye-movement data. In the final study, the effects of the sound horizon were compared to the effects of a non-positioned sound. In the latter condition, both fixation time and the number of fixations increased over time, whereas none of them showed a significant time effect in the sound horizon condition. The fixation time slope was significantly larger in the non-positioned sound condition compared to the sound horizon condition. Number of fixations, heart rate, and skin conductance correlated positively with subjective statements that referred to motion sickness. Among participants that were susceptible to motion sickness symptoms, short-term memory performance was negatively affected. However, no effects of motion sickness on encoding and retrieval were found, regardless of susceptibility.

Future studies should continue focusing on autonomic responses and psychological issues of motion sickness. Factors such as motivation, expectancies, and previous experiences play a major and yet relatively unknown role within the motion sickness phenomena.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2009. 71 p.
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1071
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15919 (URN)978-91-7393-837-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-01-30, Berzeliussalen, Campus US, Linköpings Universitet, Linköping, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-12-16 Created: 2008-12-16 Last updated: 2009-08-21Bibliographically approved
2. I feel terrible! Can you measure that?: Exploring psychophysiological stress responses and their interactions with performance, subjective reports and health status
Open this publication in new window or tab >>I feel terrible! Can you measure that?: Exploring psychophysiological stress responses and their interactions with performance, subjective reports and health status
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Despite recent research advances, there are still several common medical conditions whose underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In conditions with few or diffuse physical findings, it can be difficult to diagnose and determine the state of the condition and its effects on working ability or performance, and the health care practitioners have to rely on the patient’s self-reports. Identification of objective measurements that are sensitive enough to aid in diagnosis or determination of the state of these conditions would thus be valuable. Psychophysiological measurements are generally non-invasive and have the potential to serve as such diagnostic or prognostic tools. In this thesis, psychophysiological reactions to different stressors were recorded in two selected medical conditions; namely motion sickness and chronic trapezius myalgia (musculoskeletal pain). These subjective conditions are unpleasant, unwanted and apparently serve no survival purpose. It is therefore important to elucidate any physical findings associated with them to, eventually, find new means to prevent the development of these conditions or to ameliorate symptoms.

The overall aim of the thesis was to explore the development of psychophysiological responses to stressors in relation to performance and subjective reports in healthy individuals and in women with chronic trapezius myalgia. More in detail, the purpose was to identify psychophysiological responses that could provide information about the mechanisms behind, or serve as candidates for characterization of motion sickness and chronic trapezius myalgia, respectively.

Responses to motion sickness, triggered by optokinetic stimulation, were studied in healthy individuals, whereas responses to repetitive low-force work and psychosocial stress were studied in women with chronic trapezius myalgia and in pain-free controls. In both medical conditions, the psychophysiological responses were accompanied by subjective reports. The effects of motion sickness on two different aspects of memory performance were tested during exposure to optokinetic stimulation. In the studies of chronic trapezius myalgia, psychophysiological responses were also related to health status, i.e., being a patient or a pain-free control and measurements of pain intensity, psychological symptoms, sleep-related problems and quality of life.

The psychophysiological responses to optokinetic stimulation were inconclusive. Moderate levels of motion sickness did not affect memory performance, whereas decreased short term memory performance was seen in subjects reporting high levels of motion sickness. The autonomic responses and stress hormone secretion in response to low-force repetitive work and psychosocial stress in the chronic trapezius myalgia group were similar to those of the pain-free controls. However, muscle activity in the trapezius muscle was generally higher in the chronic trapezius myalgia group. There were indications of negative psychological states being related to a slower response and lower circadian variations of stress hormone secretion.

With the present methods, it was possible to measure general stress responses but none of the measurements showed sufficient specificity to serve as predictors or indicators of motion sickness and chronic musculoskeletal pain, respectively. Summarizing, I cannot objectively measure how you feel; I still have to rely on your description of your condition.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2010. 67 p.
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1164
Keyword
psychophysiology, motion sickness, chronic pain, stressor, performance, autonomic responses, HPA axis
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-54345 (URN)978-91-7393-457-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-04-09, Berzeliussalen, Hälsouniversitetet, Campus US, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2010-03-15 Created: 2010-03-10 Last updated: 2013-09-10Bibliographically approved

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Dahlman, JoakimSjörs, AnnaLedin, Torbjörn

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