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Could sound be used as a strategy for reducing symptoms of perceived motion sickness?
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2530-4126
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
2008 (English)In: Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, ISSN 1743-0003, Vol. 5, no 35Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Working while exposed to motions, physically and psychologically affects a person. Traditionally, motion sickness symptom reduction has implied use of medication, which can lead to detrimental effects on performance. Non-pharmaceutical strategies, in turn, often require cognitive and perceptual attention. Hence, for people working in high demand environments where it is impossible to reallocate focus of attention, other strategies are called upon. The aim of the study was to investigate possible impact of a mitigation strategy on perceived motion sickness and psychophysiological responses, based on an artificial sound horizon compared with a non-positioned sound source.

Method: Twenty-three healthy subjects were seated on a motion platform in an artificial sound horizon or in non-positioned sound, in random order with one week interval between the trials. Perceived motion sickness (Mal), maximum duration of exposure (ST), skin conductance, blood volume pulse, temperature, respiration rate, eye movements and heart rate were measured continuously throughout the trials.

Results: Mal scores increased over time in both sound conditions, but the artificial sound horizon, applied as a mitigation strategy for perceived motion sickness, showed no significant effect on Mal scores or ST. The number of fixations increased with time in the non-positioned sound condition. Moreover, fixation time was longer in the nonpositioned sound condition compared with sound horizon, indicating that the subjects used more time to fixate and, hence, assumingly made fewer saccades.

Conclusion: A subliminally presented artificial sound horizon did not significantly affect perceived motion sickness, psychophysiological variables or the time the subjects endured the motion sickness triggering stimuli. The number of fixations and fixation times increased over time in the non-positioned sound condition.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. Vol. 5, no 35
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15918DOI: 10.1186/1743-0003-5-35OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-15918DiVA: diva2:128350
Available from: 2009-03-02 Created: 2008-12-16 Last updated: 2013-09-10Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Psychophysiological and Performance Aspects on Motion Sickness
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Psychophysiological and Performance Aspects on Motion Sickness
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Rörelsesjuka, ingen sjukdom men väl en naturlig respons i en onaturlig miljö!
Abstract [en]

Motion sickness is not an illness, but rather a natural autonomic response to an unfamiliar or specific stimulus. The bodily responses to motion sickness are highly individual and contextually dependent, making them difficult to predict. The initial autonomic responses are similar to the ones demonstrated when under stress. When under the influence of motion sickness, motivation and ability to perform tasks or duties are limited. However, little is known about how specific cognitive functions are affected. Furthermore, standard mitigation strategies involve medications that induce fatigue or strategies that require cognitive capabilities. Both of them may result in reduced capability to perform assigned tasks or duties. Hence, there is a need for alternative mitigation strategies.

The aim of the thesis was to study psychophysiological and performance aspects on motion sickness. The long-term goal is to provide strategies for mitigation and prevention of motion sickness by identifying psychophysiological responses as predictors for both wellbeing and performance. This thesis comprises four studies, in which 91 participants were exposed to two different motion sickness stimuli, either an optokinetic drum or a motion platform. Before the tests, a method for extracting fixations from eye-tracking data was developed as a prerequisite for studying fixations as a possible mitigation strategy for reducing motion sickness. During exposure to stimuli that triggers motion sickness, performance was studied by testing short-term memory and encoding and retrieval. In the final study, the effects of an artificial sound horizon were studied with respect to its potential to subconsciously function as a mitigating source.

The results of the measurements of the psychophysiological responses were in accordance with previous research, confirming the ambiguity and high individuality of the responses as well as their contextual dependencies. To study fixations, a centroid mode algorithm proved to be the best way to generate fixations from eye-movement data. In the final study, the effects of the sound horizon were compared to the effects of a non-positioned sound. In the latter condition, both fixation time and the number of fixations increased over time, whereas none of them showed a significant time effect in the sound horizon condition. The fixation time slope was significantly larger in the non-positioned sound condition compared to the sound horizon condition. Number of fixations, heart rate, and skin conductance correlated positively with subjective statements that referred to motion sickness. Among participants that were susceptible to motion sickness symptoms, short-term memory performance was negatively affected. However, no effects of motion sickness on encoding and retrieval were found, regardless of susceptibility.

Future studies should continue focusing on autonomic responses and psychological issues of motion sickness. Factors such as motivation, expectancies, and previous experiences play a major and yet relatively unknown role within the motion sickness phenomena.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2009. 71 p.
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1071
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15919 (URN)978-91-7393-837-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-01-30, Berzeliussalen, Campus US, Linköpings Universitet, Linköping, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-12-16 Created: 2008-12-16 Last updated: 2009-08-21Bibliographically approved

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Dahlman, JoakimSjörs, AnnaLedin, TorbjörnFalkmer, Torbjörn

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