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Estimation of non-shivering thermogenesis and cold-induced nutrient oxidation rates: Impact of method for data selection and analysis.
PROFITH, University of Granada, Spain.
PROFITH, University of Granada, Spain.
PROFITH, University of Granada, Spain.
PROFITH, University of Granada, Spain.
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2019 (English)In: Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0261-5614, E-ISSN 1532-1983, Vol. 38, no 54, p. 2168-2174, article id S0261-5614(18)32445-2Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Since the discovery of active brown adipose tissue in human adults, non-shivering cold-induced thermogenesis (CIT) has been regarded as a promising tool to combat obesity. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding the method of choice to analyze indirect calorimetry data from a CIT study. We analyzed the impact of methods for data selection and methods for data analysis on measures of cold-induced energy expenditure (EE) and nutrient oxidation rates.

METHODS: Forty-four young healthy adults (22.1 ± 2.1 years old, 25.6 ± 5.2 kg/m2, 29 women) participated in the study. Resting metabolic rate (RMR), cold-induced thermogenesis (CIT), and cold-induced nutrient oxidation rates were estimated by indirect calorimetry under fasting conditions during 1 h of cold exposure combining air conditioning (19.5-20 °C) and a water perfused cooling vest set at a temperature of 4 °C above the individual shivering threshold. We applied three methods for data selection: (i) time intervals every 5 min (5min-TI), (ii) the most stable 5-min period of every forth part of the cold exposure (5min-SS-4P), and (iii) the most stable 5-min period of every half part of the cold exposure (5min-SS-2P). Lately we applied two methods for data analysis: (i) area under the curve as a percentage of the baseline RMR (AUC) and; (ii) the difference between EE at the end of the cold exposure and baseline RMR (Last-RMR).

RESULTS: Mean overall CIT estimation ranged from 11.6 ± 10.0 to 20.1 ± 17.2 %RMR depending on the methods for data selection and analysis used. Regarding methods for data selection, 5min-SS-2P did not allow to observe physiologically relevant phenomena (e.g. metabolic shift in fuel oxidation; P = 0.547) due to a lack of resolution. The 5min-TI and 5min-SS-4P methods for data selection seemed to be accurate enough to observe physiologically relevant phenomena (all P < 0.014), but not comparable for estimating over-all CIT and cold-induced nutrient oxidation rates (P < 0.01). Regarding methods for data analysis, the AUC seemed to be less affected for data artefacts and to be more representative in participants with a non-stable energy expenditure during cold exposure.

CONCLUSIONS: The methods for data selection and analysis can have a profound impact on CIT and cold-induced nutrient oxidation rates estimations, and therefore, it is mandatory to unify it across scientific community to allow inter-study comparisons. Based on our findings, 5min-TI should be considered the method of choice to study dynamics (i.e. changes across time) of CIT and cold-induced nutrient oxidation rates, while 5min-SS-4P and AUC should be the method of choice when computing CIT and cold-induced nutrient oxidation rates as a single value.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019. Vol. 38, no 54, p. 2168-2174, article id S0261-5614(18)32445-2
Keywords [en]
Adaptive thermogenesis, Cold-induced thermogenesis, Energy balance, Indirect calorimetry, Metabolic rate, Obesity
National Category
Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-155814DOI: 10.1016/j.clnu.2018.09.009ISI: 000492797600024PubMedID: 30297258OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-155814DiVA, id: diva2:1299772
Note

Funding agencies: Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness [PTA 12264-1]; Fondo de Investigacion Sanitaria del Instituto de Salud Carlos IIIInstituto de Salud Carlos III [P113/01393]; Retos de la Sociedad [DEP2016-79512-R]; Fondos Estructurales de la Union Europea (

Available from: 2019-03-28 Created: 2019-03-28 Last updated: 2019-11-11

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