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Weight and Height in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Longitudinal Database Study Assessing the Impact of Guanfacine, Stimulants, and No Pharmacotherapy
Evidera, MA USA; ICON, MA USA.
Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
Naval Med Ctr, VA USA.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
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2019 (English)In: Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology, ISSN 1044-5463, E-ISSN 1557-8992Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Objectives: To assess the impact of long-term pharmacotherapy with guanfacine immediate- or extended-release (GXR), administered alone or as an adjunctive to a stimulant, on weight and height in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods: Data were extracted from U.S. Department of Defense medical records for patients 4-17 years of age at index date (initiation of any study medication following a year without ADHD medications, or diagnosis if unmedicated) with weight/height measurements for the analysis period (January 2009-June 2013) and the previous year (baseline). Longitudinal weight and height z-scores were analyzed using multivariable regression in three cohorts: guanfacine (initial period of guanfacine exposure), first-line stimulant monotherapy (initial period of exposure), and unmedicated. Guanfacine cohort subgroups were based on previous/concurrent stimulant exposure. Results: The weight analyses included 47,910 patients (66.8% male) and the height analyses 41,248 (67.2% male). Mean initial exposure in the weight analyses was 237 days (standard deviation [SD] = 258, median = 142) for guanfacine and 257 days (SD = 284, median = 151) for first-line stimulant monotherapy, and was similar in the height analyses. Modeling indicated that guanfacine monotherapy was not associated with clinically meaningful deviations from normal z-score trajectories for weight (first-line, n = 943; nonfirst-line, n = 796) or height (first-line, n = 741; nonfirst-line, n = 644). In patients receiving guanfacine adjunctive to a stimulant, modeled weight (n = 1657) and height (n = 1343) z-scores followed declining trajectories. In this subgroup, mean standardized weight/height had decreased during previous stimulant monotherapy. For first-line stimulant monotherapy, modeled weight (n = 32,999) and height (n = 28,470) z-scores followed declining trajectories during year 1. In the unmedicated cohort, modeled weight (n = 11,515) and height (n = 10,050) z-scores were stable. Conclusions: Guanfacine monotherapy (first-line or nonfirst-line) was not associated with marked deviations from normal growth in this modeling study of children and adolescents with ADHD. In contrast, growth trajectories followed an initially declining course with stimulants, whether given alone or with adjunctive guanfacine.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MARY ANN LIEBERT, INC , 2019.
Keywords [en]
attention-deficit; hyperactivity disorder; weight; height; guanfacine; stimulant
National Category
Pharmaceutical Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-156558DOI: 10.1089/cap.2018.0132ISI: 000463254400001PubMedID: 30942617OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-156558DiVA, id: diva2:1315517
Note

Funding Agencies|Takeda

Available from: 2019-05-14 Created: 2019-05-14 Last updated: 2019-05-14

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Gustafsson, Per
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Center for Social and Affective NeuroscienceFaculty of Medicine and Health SciencesDepartment of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping
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Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology
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