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Excess heat from kraft pulp mills: Trade-offs between internal and external use in the case of Sweden - Part 2
Chalmers University.
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Chalmers University.
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2008 (English)In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 36, no 11, 4186-4197 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper the trade-off between internal and external use of excess heat from a kraft pulp mill is investigated for four different future energy market scenarios. The work follows the methodology described in Svensson et al. [2008. Excess heat from kraft pulp mills: trade-offs between internal and external use in the case of Sweden-Part 1: methodology. Energy Policy, submitted for publication], where a systematic approach is proposed for investigating the potential for profitable excess heat cooperation. The trade-off is analyzed by economic optimization of an energy system model consisting of a pulp mill and an energy company (ECO). In the model, investments can be made, which increase the systems energy efficiency by utilization of the mills excess heat, as well as investments that increase the electricity production. The results show that the trade-off depends on energy market prices, the district heating demand and the type of existing heat production. From an economic point of view, external use of the excess heat is preferred for all investigated energy market scenarios if the mill is studied together with an ECO with a small heat load. For the cases with medium or large district heating loads, the optimal use of excess heat varies with the energy market price scenarios. However, from a CO2 emissions perspective, external use is preferred, giving the largest reduction of global emissions in most cases.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. Vol. 36, no 11, 4186-4197 p.
Keyword [en]
Kraft pulp mill, Industrial excess heat, Energy market scenarios
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-16154DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2008.07.027OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-16154DiVA: diva2:133244
Available from: 2009-01-08 Created: 2009-01-07 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Evaluating System Consequences of Energy Co-operation between Industries and Utilities
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating System Consequences of Energy Co-operation between Industries and Utilities
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Energy conservation, energy efficiency measures, and energy carrier conversion within the industry are extremely important issues in order to deal with energy resource depletion and the threats from global warming. In Swedish industry there is potential for reductions of carbon dioxide emissions and resource use through utilization of excess heat and conversion of compression cooling to other cooling technologies using less electricity. Co-operation between industries and utilities can be obtained concerning both heating and cooling, but the choice of technologies and the profitability of co-operation are influenced by a number of factors such as the type of industry, policy instruments, the size and design of the district heating and cooling systems, and energy market prices.

In this thesis, energy co-operation has been studied on two levels: a techno-economic level and a socio-technical level. On the techno-economic level the possibilities for co-operation in two industrial cases have been studied, Scandinavian kraft pulp mills and manufacturing industry in the municipality of Södertälje:

The pulp and paper industry is one of the major energy users in Sweden, and 2.2 TWh of heat was delivered from pulp mills in 2007, mainly to district heating systems. At kraft pulp mills the excess heat can be used either internally or externally. Internally, excess heat can be used in the production process and/or to replace steam and thereby increase the production of electricity, depending on the quality of the excess heat. Externally, excess heat can be used as district heating. The trade-off between internal and external use of excess heat depends on numerous factors. The economic profitability of possible investments is influenced not only by investment costs and fuel costs; several policy instruments, including the electricity certificate system and the carbon dioxide trading scheme, also influence the choice of technology as well as the willingness to co-operate.

In the municipality of Södertälje two large industries use large amounts of electricity, district heating and cooling. The cooling demand in Södertälje is currently covered by free cooling from lake water and compression chillers; but in order to reduce the use of electricity, conversion to heat-driven cooling or increased lake water cooling can be considered. The large CHP plant in Södertälje is today not used to its full potential, but investment in heat-driven cooling and/or a cold condenser unit integrated with the CHP plant could increase the plant’s operation hours. New investments in district cooling could increase the level of co-operation between the two industries and the local utility, but depending on policy instruments, energy market prices and the possible exchange of heat between Södertälje and Stockholm, the profitability of such investments will vary.

On the socio-technical level, co-operation between utilities and industries has been studied through interviews and surveys to further analyze factors concerning co-operation beyond the techno-economic level. Results from the studies show that communication between the parties, the willingness to take risks, and trust between the co-operating parties are key factors that are as vitally important for a co-operation to take place as technical and economic factors.

Abstract [sv]

Energibesparingar, energieffektivitet och konvertering av energibärare i industrin är oerhört viktiga frågor att hantera med tanke på det hot vi står inför med uttömning av resurser och global uppvärmning. I svensk industri finns det potential för reducering av koldioxidemissioner och resursanvändning genom utnyttjande av industriell överskottsvärme och konvertering av kompressionskyla till andra kyltekniker som använder mindre el. Samarbete mellan industrier och energibolag kan uppnås både för värme och kyla, men valet av teknik och lönsamheten i samarbete påverkas av ett flertal faktorer som typen av industri, styrmedel, storleken och produktionsmixen i fjärrvärme- och fjärrkylanäten samt energimarknadspriser.

I den här avhandlingen har energisamarbeten studerats på två olika nivåer: en tekno-ekonomisk nivå och en socio-teknisk nivå. På den tekno-ekonomiska nivån har möjligheter till samarbete undersökts i två industriella fall, skandinaviska kemiska massabruk och tillverkningsindustri i Södertälje.

Massa- och pappersindustrin är en av de största energianvändarna i Sverige och 2,2 TWh värme levererades 2007 från olika bruk till fjärrvärmenäten. I ett kemiskt massabruk kan överskottsvärme användas antingen internt eller externt. Intern kan värmen användas i produktionsprocesserna och/eller för att ersätta ånga och därmed öka elproduktionen, beroende på överskottsvärmens kvalitet. Externt kan värmen användas till fjärrvärme. Avvägningen mellan intern och extern användning beror på flera faktorer. Den ekonomiska lönsamheten för möjliga investeringar påverkas inte bara av investeringskostnader och bränslekostnader, ett flertal styrmedel, inklusive elcertifikatsystemet och handeln med utsläppsrätter, påverkar valet av teknik och viljan att samarbeta.

I Södertälje finns två stora industrier som använder stora mängder el, fjärrvärme och kyla. Kylbehovet i Södertälje täcks för närvarande av frikyla från sjövatten och kompressionskylmaskiner, men för att minska elanvändningen kan konvertering till värmedriven kyla eller en ökning av mängden frikyla vara aktuellt. Den stora kraftvärmeanläggning som finns i Södertälje utnyttjas idag inte till sin fulla potential, men investering in värmedriven kyla kan öka drifttiden i anläggningen. Nya investeringar i fjärrkyla kan ge ett ökat samarbete mellan industrierna och energibolaget i Södertälje, men beroende på styrmedel, energimarknadspriser och det fjärrvärmeutbytet mellan Södertälje och Stockholm, kommer lönsamheten i dessa investeringar att variera.

På den socio-tekniska nivån har samarbeten mellan industrier och energibolag undersökts genom intervjuer och enkäter för att ytterligare analysera de faktorer som påverkar samarbeten utöver de tekno-ekonomiska möjligheterna. Resultaten från studierna visar att kommunikation mellan parterna, vilja att ta risker och förtroende mellan parterna är faktorer som är lika viktiga för att uppnå ett samarbete som tekniska möjligheter och ekonomisk lönsamhet.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2011. 69 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1407
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-71849 (URN)978-91-7393-035-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-11-14, ACAS, Hus A, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-11-07 Created: 2011-11-07 Last updated: 2011-11-09Bibliographically approved

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Svensson, Inger-LiseMoshfegh, Bahram

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