liu.seSearch for publications in DiVA
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Prevalence of blood and injection phobia among pregnant women
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
2008 (English)In: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 87, no 12, 1276-1279 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of blood and injection phobia in an unselected pregnant population, in order to estimate the need for curative intervention programmes.

Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting. Antenatal care clinics in the southeast region of Sweden.

Sample: In total, 1,606 consecutively registered pregnant women attending their first visit with a midwife.

Methods: The women were asked to complete the Injection Phobia-Anxiety scale, measuring phobic symptoms. Women who scored 20 on the questionnaire were telephone-interviewed and then diagnosed or dismissed according to the DSM-IV criteria for blood and injection phobia. Main outcome measures. Prevalence of blood and injection phobia according to the DSM-IV.

Results: Of 1,529 women who chose to participate (92.5%), 110 women or 7.2% fulfilled the DSM-IV criteria for blood and injection phobia. The mean age of the women was 29.1 years.

Conclusions: Blood and injection phobia is hitherto unreported in the literature, but seems to be relatively common and needs to be recognized during pregnancy as it causes a great deal of discomfort and fear among pregnant women. The Injection Phobia-Anxiety scale is suitable as a screening tool in an antenatal care clinic setting.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. Vol. 87, no 12, 1276-1279 p.
Keyword [en]
Blood-injection, phobia, pregnancy, prevalence
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-16232DOI: 10.1080/00016340802468324OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-16232DiVA: diva2:133485
Available from: 2009-01-12 Created: 2009-01-09 Last updated: 2017-12-14
In thesis
1. Blood-and Injection Phobia in Pregnancy: Epidemiological, Biological and Treatment aspects
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Blood-and Injection Phobia in Pregnancy: Epidemiological, Biological and Treatment aspects
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Blood- and injection phobia is an anxiety disorder with a prevalence of approximately 3-5% in the general population. The etiology is often a combination of genetic factors and a conditioning experience. The symptoms of blood- and injection phobia are dizziness, confusion, nausea, epigastria discomfort, anxiety and sometimes panic attacks when receiving injections, seeing blood or having a blood sample taken. Unique for this specific phobia is the high probability of fainting when the phobic situation is encountered if there is no possibility to escape or to avoid the stimuli.

During pregnancy and labor, women with blood- and injection phobia are exposed to most of their fears and they therefore find themselves in anxiety-ridden situations. Stress and anxiety during pregnancy is known to be risk factors for adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Studies have shown an altered hypothalamic-adrenal-pituitary axis in women with stress or/and anxiety during pregnancy and increased cortisol concentrations can imply negative consequences for the unborn child. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is known to be effective in treating specific phobias such as blood- and injection phobia.

Aim: The prevalence, obstetric and neonatal consequences, impact on the hypothalamic adrenal-pituitary axis and treatment aspects of blood- and injection phobia in a pregnant population have not been investigated before. The aims of this thesis were to study each of these phenomena.

Material and methods: During 2005 a total of 1606 pregnant women were approached at their first visit in an antenatal care clinic in the southeast region in Sweden. They were asked to complete the “Injection Phobia Scale-Anxiety” questionnaire. All women who scored ≥ 20 on the “Injection Phobia Scale-Anxiety” questionnaire (N=347), were interviewed and either diagnosed for blood- and injection phobia or dismissed. In total, 110 women were diagnosed as having blood- and injection phobia. Among the women who scored <20 on the “Injection Phobia Scale-Anxiety” questionnaire, 220 women were randomly stratified for age and parity as a control group. The women in the study population answered questionnaires in gestational week 25, 36 and postpartum concerning symptoms of blood- and injection phobia, depression and anxiety. Samples of cortisol in the saliva were collected in the morning and evening in gestational week 25 and 36 in both groups of pregnant women. The medical records from the antenatal care visits, the delivery and postpartum check-up was used to collect data of importance. A treatment study was conducted using a two session cognitive behavioral therapy in a group of pregnant woman with blood- and injection phobia.

Results: The prevalence of blood- and injection phobia is 7 % in a pregnant population. Pregnant women with blood- and injection phobia stated more often a fear of childbirth (p<0.001) and were more frequently delivered by elective cesarean section (p=0.032). The incidence of having a baby diagnosed with a complication (p=0.001) was also higher among these women. The women with blood- and injection phobia had increased cortisol concentrations in the saliva compared to the healthy controls (p=0.014). A two-session CBT in group for pregnant women with blood- and injection phobia reduced phobic (p<0.001) anxiety (p<0.001) and depressive (p<0.001) symptoms during pregnancy.

Conclusions: Blood- and injection phobia during pregnancy is rather common. Pregnant women with blood- and injection phobia are more likely to be delivered by elective cesarean section and having a baby born with a complication compared to women not suffering from this specific phobia. Untreated blood- and injection phobia during pregnancy increases salivary cortisol concentrations indicating an altered hypothalamic-adrenal-pituitary axis during these weeks of pregnancy. To enhance psychological well being in pregnant women with blood- and injection phobia a two-session program providing CBT for groups of pregnant women is valuable and produces stable results for at least 3 months after delivery.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2010. 126 p.
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1194
Keyword
Blood-and injection phobia, pregnancy, prevalence, cortisol, outcome, cognitive behavioral therapy
National Category
Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-59745 (URN)978-91-7393-344-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-10-15, Berzeliussalen, Ingång 65,, Campus US, Linköpings Universitet, Linköping, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2010-10-04 Created: 2010-09-24 Last updated: 2011-03-25Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full text

Authority records BETA

Josefsson, Ann

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Josefsson, Ann
By organisation
Obstetrics and gynecology Faculty of Health SciencesDepartment of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping
In the same journal
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Medical and Health Sciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

doi
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
urn-nbn
Total: 95 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf