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Impacts of Aging on Anemia Tolerance, Transfusion Thresholds, and Patient Blood Management
Univ Sunshine Coast, Australia.
Univ Sunshine Coast, Australia.
Sunshine Coast Univ Hosp, Australia.
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care in Linköping (ANOPIVA).ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2888-4111
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2019 (English)In: Transfusion Medicine Reviews, ISSN 0887-7963, E-ISSN 1532-9496, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 154-161Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Evidence-based patient blood management guidelines commonly recommend restrictive hemoglobin thresholds of 70 to 80 g/L for asymptomatic adults. However, most transfusion trials have enrolled adults across a broad age span, with few exclusive to older adults. Our recent meta-analysis of transfusion trials that focused on older adults paradoxically found lower mortality and fewer cardiac complications when these patients were managed using higher hemoglobin thresholds. We postulate that declining cardiac output with age contributes to deteriorating oxygen delivery capacity which impacts anemia-associated outcomes in older adults and propose a model to explain this age-related difference. We reviewed evidence concerning the pathophysiology of aging to explore the disparity in transfusion trial outcomes related to hemoglobin thresholds in different age groups. The literature was searched for normative cardiac output values at different ages in healthy adults. Using normative peak cardiac output data, we modeled oxygen delivery capacity in young, middle-aged, and older adults at a range of hemoglobin levels. Cardiovascular and pulmonary systems are impacted by age-related pathophysiological changes. Diminishing peak cardiac output associated with aging reduces the maximal oxygen delivery achievable under metabolic stress. Hence, at low hemoglobin levels, older adults are more susceptible to tissue hypoxia than younger adults. Our model predicts that an older adult with a hemoglobin of 100 g/L has a similar peak oxygen delivery capacity to a young adult with a hemoglobin of 70 g/L. Age-related pathophysiological changes provide some explanation as to why older adults have a lower tolerance for anemia than younger adults. This indicates the need for patient blood management hemoglobin thresholds specific to older as distinct from younger adults. The primary application of this model is in the consideration of patients rehabilitating to life outside hospital. It is important to note that pathophysiological changes associated with critical illness and major surgery are more complex than can be described in a simple model based on cardiac output and hemoglobin concentration. However, our review of oxygen transport and delivery in health and disease states allows the model to be considered in the context of treatment decisions for anemic adults in a range of hospital and community settings. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
W B SAUNDERS CO-ELSEVIER INC , 2019. Vol. 33, no 3, p. 154-161
Keywords [en]
Patient blood management; Anemia; Older adults; Geriatric; Pathophysiology; Aging
National Category
Hematology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-160627DOI: 10.1016/j.tmrv.2019.03.001ISI: 000485213000003PubMedID: 31129009OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-160627DiVA, id: diva2:1360248
Available from: 2019-10-11 Created: 2019-10-11 Last updated: 2019-10-11

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Chew, Michelle
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Division of Drug ResearchFaculty of Medicine and Health SciencesDepartment of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care in Linköping (ANOPIVA)
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