liu.seSearch for publications in DiVA
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Designing for sketching to support concept exploration
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Sketching is a way of exploring early concepts through the act of externalization in a suitable material with the aid of a suitable tool. One could use paper and sketch with a pencil or go digital and sketch with code. What is appropriate to choose depends on the situation and on the skillset of the person who is going to sketch. When sketching is done successfully, the externalization can “speak back” and thus engage the sketcher, and others, in a conversation leading to a better understanding of the sketched concepts as well as new concept ideas. This is thoroughly documented in literature – a typical example would be an architect sketching a site plan on a flat piece of paper and being able to read into the possible movements in the third-dimensional space. Sketching generally works like this in familiar, that is, idiomatic situations for experienced sketchers. In unfamiliar or non-idiomatic situations, existing sketching tools are inadequate for expressing and exploring early concepts. For novice sketchers, with limited sketching literacy, even attempting to sketch in an idiomatic situation can be challenging.

Through three cases, I design for concept exploration by enabling sketching to understand how this can be done in new situations. The first case deals with expert sketchers exploring non-idiomatic situations: professional creatives working with fulldome format for visual communication. The second case deals with novice sketchers exploring non-idiomatic situations: design students working with virtual reality. The third case deals with novice sketchers exploring idiomatic situations: air traffic controllers working with finding alternative routes for aircraft in the airspace with automation support.

I take a constructive design approach by making design examples and reflecting during and after the process. With the help of the design examples, I engage domain experts through participatory co-design workshops and elicit insights in order to inspire further design work. What I learn through this dynamic making-workshopping-and-reflecting process forms the foundation of the knowledge contribution. It is presented here as three design tactics on how sketching could be like to support concept exploration: 1) be responsive, 2) emulate salient material properties, and 3) be lightweight.

Abstract [sv]

Att skissa är ett sätt att utforska tidiga koncept. Det görs vanligtvis genom att externalisera koncepten i ett lämpligt material med hjälp av ett lämpligt verktyg. Det går likväl att skissa med papper och penna som att skissa digitalt med hjälp av kod. Vilket material eller verktyg som är att föredra beror på situationen och skickligheten hos personen som ska skissa. När skissning sker framgångsrikt kan externaliseringen “prata tillbaka” och på så sätt engagera skissaren, och andra, i en konversation som leder både till bättre förståelse för koncepten och även till nya konceptförslag. Det här finns utförligt beskrivet i litteraturen – ett typexempel är när en arkitekt skissar en byggnadskonstruktion på ett plant papper och utifrån det kan se hur möjliga rörelser kan te sig i en tredimensionell rymd. Skissning funkar generellt sett på det här sättet i alla fall i välbekanta, idiomatiska situationer för erfarna skissare. Däremot i obekanta, icke-idiomatiska situationer, är befintliga skissningsverktyg otillräckliga för att kunna användas till att uttrycka och utforska tidiga koncept. För novisa skissare, med begränsad skiss-kunnighet, är det dessutom utmanande att skissa även i en idiomatisk situation.

I tre fallstudier, designar jag för konceptutforskning för att förstå hur det kan ske i nya situationer genom att möjliggöra för skissning. Den första fallstudien handlar om erfarna skissare som utforskar icke-idiomatiska situationer: professionella kreatörer som jobbar med domformat för visuell kommunikation. Den andra fallstudien handlar om novisa skissare som utforskar icke-idiomatiska situationer: designstudenter som jobbar med virtuell verklighet. Den tredje fallstudien handlar om novisa skissare som utforskar idiomatiska situationer: flygledare som jobbar med att hitta alternativa rutter för flygmaskiner i luften med automationsstöd.

Jag tar en konstruktiv designansats genom ett skapande av designexempel och reflektion under och efter processen. Med hjälp av designexemplen engagerar jag domänexperter i deltagande co-designworkshops och fram insikter som inspirerar fortsatt designarbete. Det jag lär mig under den här dynamiska processen av skapande, workshopande och reflekterande, formar grunden till kunskapsbidraget. Bidraget presenteras här som tre designtaktiker om hur skissning kan vara för att stödja konceptutforskande: 1) vara responsiv, 2) emulera centrala materialegenskaper, och 3) vara lättviktig.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2019.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 2013
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-161712ISBN: 978-91-7519-009-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-161712DiVA, id: diva2:1368495
Public defence
2019-12-20, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-11-07 Created: 2019-11-07 Last updated: 2019-11-07Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Enabling Designers to Sketch Immersive Fulldome Presentations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enabling Designers to Sketch Immersive Fulldome Presentations
2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, ACM Press, 2016, p. 1490-1496Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Sketching is an integral part of a designer's creative process, especially in the early phase of a project and in particular when exploring an unfamiliar medium. Traditional design principles does not seem to apply when designing presentations for a fulldome. Surprisingly, interviews with local creative professionals revealed that sketching was a challenge when designing fulldome presentations, which made it more difficult for them to understand the characteristics of this unfamiliar medium. This challenge has also been affirmed by the first author's own experience of creating a fulldome presentation. This paper describes the challenges in designing for a fulldome and discusses the work in progress by imagining new variations of sketching media that are being created as early design concepts, which will be tried out by a reference group. The aim is to identify characteristics a sketching medium needs to have in order for a designer to successfully express and explore early ideas for a fulldome presentation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ACM Press, 2016
National Category
Interaction Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-142921 (URN)10.1145/2851581.2892343 (DOI)978-1-4503-4082-3 (ISBN)
Conference
CHI'16 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems SanJose,CA, USA, May 07-12,2016.
Available from: 2017-11-10 Created: 2017-11-10 Last updated: 2019-11-07
2. Empowering Non-designers through Animation-based Sketching
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Empowering Non-designers through Animation-based Sketching
2017 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper asks whether it is feasible and valuable to facilitate early stakeholder involvement in the design process by applying animation as a common temporal sketching language. We build on the notion of sketching as an efficient activity for designers to think with and communicate ideas through. Not much research has sought to involve non-designers in the sketching process and assess which sketching media might be suitable for this purpose. We present the findings and learnings from a one-day workshop of using animation-based sketching techniques with non-designers as a way to empower them in the early concept exploration phase. We then discuss whether animation could be a suitable mediator of the sketching mind-set in stakeholders with varying preconditions for participating in the early exploratory phase of design

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nordes, Nordic Design Research, 2017
Series
Design+Power, E-ISSN 1604-9705 ; 7
National Category
Interaction Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-142922 (URN)
Conference
7th Nordic Design Research Conference Nordic Design Research Conference
Available from: 2017-11-10 Created: 2017-11-10 Last updated: 2019-11-07Bibliographically approved
3. Machine learning as a design material: a curated collection of exemplars for visual interaction
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Machine learning as a design material: a curated collection of exemplars for visual interaction
2018 (English)In: DS 91: Proceedings of NordDesign 2018, Linköping, Sweden, 14th - 17th August 2018 / [ed] Philip Ekströmer, Simon Schütte and Johan Ölvander, 2018, p. 1-10Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Although machine learning is not a new phenomenon, it has truly entered the spotlight in recent years. With growing expectations, we see a shift in focus from performance tuning to awareness of meaningful interaction and purpose. Interaction design and UX research is currently in a position to provide important and necessary knowledge contributions to the development of machine learning systems. Machine learning can be viewed as a design material that is arguably more unpredictable, emergent, and “alive” than traditional ones. These characteristics suggest practice-based work along the lines of research-through-design as a promising approach for machine learning system development research. Design researchers using a research-through-design approach agree that a created artefact carries knowledge, but there is no consensus on how such knowledge is best articulated and transferred within academic discourse. Knowledge contributions need to be abstracted from the particular to a higher level. We suggest curated collections, a variation of annotated portfolios, as a way to abstract and communicate intermediate-level knowledge that is suitable and useful for the research-through-design community. A curated collection presents thoughtfully selected and inter-related exemplars, articulating their salient traits. The insights collected in a curated collection can be used to inform future design in related design situations. This paper provides a curated collection addressing the fine-grained details of interaction with machine learning systems. The examples are drawn from highly visual interaction, predominantly in the domain of digital pathology. The collection of interaction examples is used to elicit a set of salient traits, including the preservation of visual context, rapid real-time refinement, leaving traces, and applying judicious automation. Finally, we show how this curated collection could inform the design of a future system in a different domain. The insights are applied to a case of interaction design to support air traffic controllers in their collaboration with future agentive systems

Series
NordDESIGN ; 2018
Keywords
digital design, interaction design, machine learning, curated collection
National Category
Design Human Computer Interaction Interaction Technologies Human Aspects of ICT Media and Communication Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-160675 (URN)9789176851852 (ISBN)
Conference
The NordDesign 2018, Linköping, Sweden, 14th - 17th August 2018
Available from: 2019-10-01 Created: 2019-10-01 Last updated: 2019-11-07Bibliographically approved
4. Sketching Immersive Information Spaces: Lessons learned from experiments in '˜sketching for and through virtual reality'
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sketching Immersive Information Spaces: Lessons learned from experiments in '˜sketching for and through virtual reality'
2019 (English)In: Proceedings of the 7th eCAADe Regional International Symposium, eCAADe , 2019, Vol. 7, p. 147-157Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the lessons learned from a design workshop exploring methods for early exploration of immersive information spaces, such as Virtual Reality (VR). The methods explored cover design situations both designing for VR, and designing through VR, in varying degrees of fidelity. The workshops shared the common factor of attempting to enable a feedback loop between sketching activities and the more didactic and time consuming prototyping processes. From our analysis, we found that to achieve true ‘sketchiness’ in an immersive VR settings, tool proficiency naturally becomes a decisive factor, since a lot of new techniques needs to be learned and gained experience with. Furthermore, it is evident that the mental shift, from flat to 360 degree design, was challenging, but also the enabler of new creative constraints from which the designer can explore the boundaries of the design space. We conclude by arguing for the development of more formalized patterns, materials and tools to not just enable immersive sketching, but also enable grasping the immersive design space itself by motivating the explorations and happy accidents when ‘doodling’ in the immersive space.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
eCAADe, 2019
Keywords
sketching, prototyping, virtual reality, vr, design, immersive spaces
National Category
Interaction Technologies Human Computer Interaction Media and Communication Technology Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-160674 (URN)
Conference
The 7th eCAADe Regional International Symposium : Virtually Real, Rendsburggade 14, Aalborg Varighed: 2 maj 2019 → 3 maj 2019
Available from: 2019-10-01 Created: 2019-10-01 Last updated: 2019-11-07Bibliographically approved
5. Designing fine-grained interactions for automation in air traffic control
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Designing fine-grained interactions for automation in air traffic control
2019 (English)In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Our work aims to explore novel approaches to the challenge of designing the interaction between people and automation. Through a case study within the domain of air traffic control, we focus on designing fine-grained human–automation interactions. We design a concept and develop an interactive lo-fi prototype of an assisted sketching system to enable air traffic controllers to interact with automation in a fine-grained manner and to externalize mental images. Assisted sketching seems to offer a possible way to communicate different degrees of predictive certainty using visual cues and interaction. Our insights further suggest that externalization through assisted sketching could encourage exploration of future scenarios, and support communication and collaboration between air traffic controllers and between air traffic controllers and pilots. The explorative benefits for the individual decision-making process might be more evident in situations where air traffic controllers have more time for reflection, for example during planning or debriefing and in educational settings.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Springer London, 2019
National Category
Design Human Computer Interaction Interaction Technologies Media and Communication Technology Information Systems, Social aspects
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-160672 (URN)10.1007/s10111-019-00598-9 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-10-01 Created: 2019-10-01 Last updated: 2019-11-07Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text in DiVA

Authority records BETA

Tran Luciani, Danwei

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Tran Luciani, Danwei
By organisation
Media and Information TechnologyFaculty of Science & Engineering
Human Computer Interaction

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf