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Paradigm shift in thin-film growth by magnetron sputtering: From gas-ion to metal-ion irradiation of the growing film
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4898-5115
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA; Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA; Natl Taiwan Univ Sci and Technol, Taiwan.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2837-3656
2019 (English)In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 37, no 6, article id 060801Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ion refractory ceramic thin films grown at low temperatures by magnetron sputtering. However, in contrast to gas-ion bombardment, the effects of metal-ion irradiation on properties of refractory ceramic thin films have not been extensively studied due to (i) low metal-ion concentrations (a few percents) during standard direct-current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) and (ii) difficulties in separating metal-ion from gas-ion fluxes. Recently, the situation has changed dramatically, thanks to the development of highpower impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS), which provides highly-ionized metal-ion plasmas. In addition, careful choice of sputtering conditions allows exploitation of gas-rarefaction effects such that the charge state, energy, and momentum of metal ions incident at the growing film surface can be tuned. This is possible via the use of pulsed substrate bias, synchronized to the metal-ion-rich portion of each HiPIMS pulse. In this review, the authors begin by summarizing the results of time-resolved mass spectrometry analyses performed at the substrate position during HiPIMS and HiPIMS/DCMS cosputtering of transition-metal (TM) targets in Ar and Ar/N-2 atmospheres. Knowledge of the temporal evolution of metal- and gas-ion fluxes is essential for precise control of the incident metal-ion energy and for minimizing the role of gas-ion irradiation. Next, the authors review results on the growth of binary, pseudobinary, and pseudoternary TM nitride alloys by metal-ion-synchronized HiPIMS. In contrast to gas ions, a fraction of which are trapped at interstitial sites, metal ions are primarily incorporated at lattice sites resulting in much lower compressive stresses. In addition, the closer mass match with the film-forming species results in more efficient momentum transfer and provides the recoil density and energy necessary to eliminate film porosity at low deposition temperatures. Several novel film-growth pathways have been demonstrated: (i) nanostructured N-doped bcc-CrN0.05 films combining properties typically associated with both metals and ceramics, (ii) fully-dense, hard, and stress-free Ti0.39Al0.61N, (iii) single-phase cubic Ti1-xSixN with the highest reported SiN concentrations, (iv) unprecedented AlN supersaturation in single-phase NaCl-structure V1-xAlxN, and (v) a dramatic increase in the hardness, due to selective heavy-metal ion bombardment during growth, of dense Ti0.92Ta0.08N films deposited with no external heating. (C) 2019 Author(s).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
A V S AMER INST PHYSICS , 2019. Vol. 37, no 6, article id 060801
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-163047DOI: 10.1116/1.5121226ISI: 000504231200001OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-163047DiVA, id: diva2:1384245
Note

Funding Agencies|Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationKnut & Alice Wallenberg Foundation [KAW2016.0358]; VINN Excellence Center Functional Nanoscale Materials (FunMat-2) [2016-05156]; Swedish Research Council VRSwedish Research Council [2018-03957]; VINNOVAVinnova [2018-04290]; Aforsk Foundation [16-359]; Carl Tryggers Stiftelse [CTS 17:166]

Available from: 2020-01-09 Created: 2020-01-09 Last updated: 2020-01-09

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Greczynski, GrzegorzPetrov, IvanGreene, Joseph EHultman, Lars
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