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Biomonitoring of Metal Exposure During Additive Manufacturing (3D Printing)
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Center.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3984-3964
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Center.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Center.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
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2019 (English)In: SH@W Safety and Health at Work, ISSN 2093-7911, E-ISSN 2093-7997, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 518-526Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Additive manufacturing (AM) is a rapidly expanding new technology involving challenges to occupational health. Here, metal exposure in an AM facility with large-scale metallic component production was investigated during two consecutive years with preventive actions in between. Methods: Gravimetric analyzes measured airborne particle concentrations, and filters were analyzed for metal content. In addition, concentrations of airborne particles amp;lt;300 nm were investigated. Particles from recycled powder were characterized. Biomonitoring of urine and dermal contamination among AM operators, office personnel, and welders was performed. Results: Total and inhalable dust levels were almost all below occupational exposure limits, but inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry showed that AM operators had a significant increase in cobalt exposure compared with welders. Airborne particle concentrations (amp;lt;300 nm) showed transient peaks in the AM facility but were lower than those of the welding facility. Particle characterization of recycled powder showed fragmentation and condensates enriched in volatile metals. Biomonitoring showed a nonsignificant increase in the level of metals in urine in AM operators. Dermal cobalt and a trend for increasing urine metals during Workweek Year 1, but not in Year 2, indicated reduced exposure after preventive actions. Conclusion: Gravimetric analyses showed low total and inhalable dust exposure in AM operators. However, transient emission of smaller particles constitutes exposure risks. Preventive actions implemented by the company reduced the workers metal exposure despite unchanged emissions of particles, indicating a need for careful design and regulation of the AM environments. It also emphasizes the need for relevant exposure markers and biomonitoring of health risks. (C) 2019 Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute, Published by Elsevier Korea LLC.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER , 2019. Vol. 10, no 4, p. 518-526
Keywords [en]
3D-printing; Additive manufacturing; Metals; Occupational exposure; Particle exposure
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-163043DOI: 10.1016/j.shaw.2019.07.006ISI: 000503797900015PubMedID: 31890335OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-163043DiVA, id: diva2:1384248
Note

Funding Agencies|AFA Insurance, Sweden [150246]; National Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo, Norway

Available from: 2020-01-09 Created: 2020-01-09 Last updated: 2020-02-20

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Ljunggren, StefanKarlsson, HelenStåhlbom, BengtKrapi, Blerim
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