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Municipal Energy Planning: Scope and Method Development
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Swedish municipalities are required to produce a municipal energy plan for their energy supply and use. Whether energy planning is suitable to manage local energy systems, however, is subject to debate. This thesis maps municipal energy planning: the scopes of energy plans and whether goals stated in energy plans are fulfilled. It also presents a pilot project with the implementation of an energy planning process where four different decision-making tools were applied: a Citizen’s panel, scenario techniques and quantitative and qualitative environmental assessments. The results from the mapping of energy planning and the experiences from the pilot project are then the bases for a discussion about the effectiveness of energy planning.

The thesis is based on six papers; five scientific papers and one working paper. The first three papers contribute to mapping municipal energy planning in terms of expressed volition (goals, measures and strategies in the energy plans), whether goals are fulfilled and the extent of environmental analyses and assessments in the plans. The three subsequent papers present the implementation and evaluations of the energy planning process in the pilot project.

The scopes of the studied energy plans have varied over time and have been adaptive to external factors such as contemporary energy policies and international trends. Environmental analyses and assessments were more commonly occurring in the energy plans adopted between 2006 and 2008 compared to those adopted between 1995 and 1998. The environmental analyses and assessments were however less comprehensive in the newer energy plans. Most positive development, in terms of fulfilled goals, took place for issues within the power of the local authority, for example district heating expansion and energy efficiency measures in public buildings. Experiences from the pilot project showed that decision-making tools can contribute to a broader scope of energy planning, more comprehensive environmental assessments and legitimacy.

Based on the research findings possibilities for more effective energy planning are discussed. Effectiveness is discussed in terms of scope and legitimacy and how a broad scope and legitimacy are affected by the use of decision-making tools. It is concluded that energy planning has potential for being an effective tool for strategic energy work at the local level. The use of decision-making tools can also contribute to learning as well as legitimacy to energy planning.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2009. , 72 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1234
Keyword [en]
Energy planning, energy systems, environmental assessment, decision-making, participation
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-16398ISBN: 978-91-7393-716-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-16398DiVA: diva2:139412
Public defence
2009-02-13, A2, Hus A, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-03-06 Created: 2009-01-22 Last updated: 2010-06-16Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Municipal Energy Planning and Development of Local Energy Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Municipal Energy Planning and Development of Local Energy Systems
2003 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, Vol. 76, no 1-3, 179-187 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Over the past three decades, Swedish energy policy has evolved in three major stages—oil reduction, phase-out of nuclear energy, renewable energy—each with a different focus. Since 1977, Swedish law has required municipalities to develop an energy plan that addresses the supply, distribution, and use of energy. Whether such plans have contributed to the development of local energy-systems has been a subject for debate. This paper is based on a study of 12 municipal energy-plans that attempted to control and develop local energy-systems in southern Sweden. The analysis examines how municipalities promote oil reduction, efficient energy use, and the use of renewable energy. The plans varied in planning processes, contents, and level of ambition. The results of the study show that the contents of the plans follow the national energy-policies with respect to reduction of oil use, improved energy efficiency, and increased use of renewable energy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2003
Keyword
Energy-planning, National energy, Municipal energy, Environmental impact, Strategies
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13852 (URN)10.1016/S0306-2619(03)00062-X (DOI)
Available from: 2006-05-30 Created: 2006-05-30 Last updated: 2009-06-04Bibliographically approved
2. Volition and Environmental Assessment in Swedish Municipal Energy Plans
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Volition and Environmental Assessment in Swedish Municipal Energy Plans
2009 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

There are several policy instruments for managing energy systems at the local level, for municipal energy planning, which is a means for local authorities to manage the local energy system. This article analyses the municipal Energy Planning which has been required by Swedish law since 1997. Recent energy plans are compared with earlier plans. The aim is to see if recent energy plans are different and if the observed differences can be explained by the impact of external factors, for example other policy instruments.

The results show that the both the scope of expressed volition and environmental assessments have changed substantially between the two sets of energy plans studied. Newer energy plans include more goals for transports and information, but fewer goals for environmental aspects. Environmental assessments are more commonly occurring in the newer plans, but focus to large extent on emissions of carbon dioxide and climate change. It is concluded that these differences can largely be explained by a rather weak legislation, which allows external factors to influence the energy planning process. It is further concluded that it is important to include environmental assessments in the energy planning process to avoid problem shifting. Such assessments must include more environmental consequences than simply the emissions of carbon dioxide.

Keyword
Energy planning, environmental assessment, energy policy
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17121 (URN)
Available from: 2011-08-12 Created: 2009-03-06 Last updated: 2016-02-17Bibliographically approved
3. New Tools in Local Energy Planning: Experimenting with Scenarios, Public Participation and Environmental Assessment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>New Tools in Local Energy Planning: Experimenting with Scenarios, Public Participation and Environmental Assessment
Show others...
2010 (English)In: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711, Vol. 15, no 2, 105-120 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article describes the development and implementation of an energy planning process in a Swedish municipality. This is a unique full scale test of the application of a number of tools for local planning and environmental assessments. The experiment is based on well-known theoretical knowledge and planning legislation as a “standard of good practice,” and involves a combination of analytical and procedural tools intended to aid decision-making: external scenarios, a citizens’ panel, life cycle analyses and qualitative environmental assessment. The implementation of the energy planning process illustrates that it is important to appoint a municipal work group to lead the process and be the driving force throughout the process. Furthermore, the application of this combination of tools suggests that they contribute substantially to the quality of the energy planning process, but that it is complicated to combine several different decision-making tools. The planning model needs further simplification before it can be used as a standard of good practice by practitioners.

Keyword
Energy planning, decision-making tools, local authority, LCA, scenarios
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17122 (URN)10.1080/13549830903527639 (DOI)
Note
This is an electronic version of an article published in: Jenny Stenlund Nilsson Ivner, Anna Björklund, Karl-Henrik Dreborg, Jessica Johansson, Per Wiklund and Hans Wiklund, New Tools in Local Energy Planning: Experimenting with Scenarios, Public Participation and Environmental Assessment, 2010, Local Environment, (15), 2, 105-120. Local Environment is available online at informaworldTM: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13549830903527639 Copyright: Taylor & Francis http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/default.asp Available from: 2009-03-06 Created: 2009-03-06 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
4. Energy planning with decision-making tools: Experiences from an energy-planning project
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy planning with decision-making tools: Experiences from an energy-planning project
2009 (English)In: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711, Vol. 14, no 9, 833-850 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article presents the evaluation of a pilot project where four decision-making tools are applied in a municipal energy planning process in a Swedish municipality. The tested tools are a citizens’ panel, a combination of external scenarios and backcasting, and life cycle assessment and qualitative checklists for environmental assessment. The presented results are based on two focus group discussions with the participants from the project: one with the municipal workgroup and one with the researchers that were responsible for the application of the decision-making tools. The results show that energy planning is a process of learning and dialogue, and workshop methodology was found to be favourable for open dialogue. This test also shows that public involvement can contribute substantially to the visionary work and suggestions of actions and strategies. Another conclusion is that energy planning needs to be iterative, even in the scoping. This test also shows that there is a need for simplified tools that include environmental assessment and broad system boundaries in local energy planning.

Keyword
Energy planning, local authority, LCA, scenarios, participation
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17123 (URN)10.1080/13549830903160613 (DOI)
Note

In the list of papers is the title of the article: Energy Planning with Novel Planning Tools - Experiences from an Energy Planning Project This is an electronic version of an article published in: Jenny Stenlund Nilsson Ivner, Energy planning with decision-making tools: Experiences from an energy-planning project, 2009, Local Environment, (14), 9, 833-850. Local Environment is available online at informaworldTM: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13549830903160613 Copyright: Taylor & Francis http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/default.asp

Available from: 2009-03-06 Created: 2009-03-06 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
5. Do decision-making tools lead to better energy planning?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Do decision-making tools lead to better energy planning?
2009 (English)Other (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This article evaluates the effectiveness of decision-making tools originally designed for environmental issues in an energy planning process in a Swedish municipality. The tested tools include a citizen’s panel, a combination of external scenarios and backcasting, life cycle assessment, and qualitative checklists for environmental assessment. This study concludes that the tools contributed to a broader scope, more comprehensive environmental assessments, and better legitimacy of the energy planning.

Keyword
Tools, decision-making, energy planning, local authority
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17124 (URN)
Available from: 2010-06-16 Created: 2009-03-06 Last updated: 2010-06-16Bibliographically approved

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