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Gastrointestinal microcirculation and cardiopulmonary function during experimentally increased intra-abdominal pressure
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Thoracic Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Thoracic Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Clinical Physiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
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2009 (English)In: Critical Care Medicine, ISSN 0090-3493, E-ISSN 1530-0293, Vol. 37, no 1, 230-239 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess gastric, intestinal, and renal cortex microcirculation parallel with central hemodynamics and respiratory function during stepwise increase of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP).

Design: Prospective, controlled animal study.

Setting: Research laboratory, University Hospital.

Subjects: Twenty-six anesthetized and mechanically ventilated pigs.

Interventions: Following baseline registrations, CO2 peritoneum was inflated (n = 20) and IAP increased stepwise by 10 mm Hg at 10 mins intervals up to 50 mm Hg and subsequently exsufflated. Control animals (n = 6) were not insufflated with CO2.

Measurements and Main Results: The microcirculation of gastric mucosa, small bowel mucosa, small bowel seromuscular layer, colon mucosa, colon seromuscular layer, and renal cortex were selectively studied at all pressure levels and after exsufflation using a four-channel laser Doppler flowmeter (Periflex 5000, Perimed). Central hemodynamic and respiratory function data were registered at each level and after exsufflation. Cardiac output decreased significantly at IAP levels above 10 mm Hg. The microcirculation of gastric mucosa, renal cortex and the seromuscular layer of small bowel and colon was significantly reduced with each increase of IAP. The microcirculation of the small bowel mucosa and colon mucosa was significantly less affected compared with the serosa (p < 0.01).

Conclusions: Our animal model of low and high IAP by intraperitoneal CO2-insufflation worked well for studies of microcirculation, hemodynamics, and pulmonary function. During stepwise increases of pressure there were marked effects on global hemodynamics, respiratory function, and microcirculation. The results indicate that intestinal mucosal flow, especially small bowel mucosal flow, although reduced, seems better preserved in response to intra-abdominal hypertension caused by CO2-insufflation than other intra-abdominal microvascular beds.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 37, no 1, 230-239 p.
Keyword [en]
intra-abdominal hypertension, gastrointestinal microcirculation, cardiopulmonary function
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-16533DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e318192ff51OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-16533DiVA: diva2:158148
Available from: 2009-01-30 Created: 2009-01-30 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Experimental studies on Damage Control Surgery and Intraabdominal Hypertension
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental studies on Damage Control Surgery and Intraabdominal Hypertension
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Damage control surgery (DCS) offers an alternative to the traditional surgical management of complex or multiple injuries in critically injured patients. If a patient survives the initial phase of DCS, complications may occur, one of these being intraabdominal hypertension (IAH) and it´s potential development into the abdominal compartment syndrome.

The indications for DCS have been widened and DCS principles can be applied in situations where time and resources are essential factors. The DCS principles of rapidly controlling intestinal spillage have not been evaluated. The aim of the studies in Papers I and II was to evaluate the principles of spillage control of intestinal contents according to the DCS concept and more specifically the effects of early rapid control of multiple bowel perforations on cardiovascular and pulmonary function compared with conventional small bowel resections in an animal model with abdominal trauma. In Paper I the animal model using anaesthetised pigs included a gunshot wound to the abdomen which caused multiple small bowel injuries. Haemorrhagic shock was combined with the gunshot wound in Paper II. The results presented in Paper I showed a significant reduction in rise in systemic vascular resistance and pulmonary vascular resistance, and a trend towards higher cardiac output and lower oxygen consumption in the bowel ligation group. In Paper II the results show a longer persistence of lactic acidaemia in the bowel ligation group. The aim of the study in Paper III was to assess visceral (intestinal, gastric and renal) microcirculation parallel with central haemodynamics and respiratory function during stepwise increases in intraabdominal pressure. In Paper IV we studied mucosal barrier function and morphology in the small bowel and colon of the pigs which were subjected to IAH. The IAP in anaesthetised pigs was increased stepwise using CO2 inflation, by 10 mm Hg at 10-minute intervals up to 50 mm Hg, and followed by exsufflation (Paper III). The microcirculation was selectively studied using a 4-channel laser Doppler flowmeter (Periflex 5000, Perimed, Sweden). The mucosal tissues were mounted in modified Ussing chambers for assessment of barrier function (E.coli K12 uptake and 51Cr-EDTA permeability) (Paper IV). The results showed that the microcirculation of the small bowel mucosa and colon mucosa was significantly less affected compared to the seromuscular layers. The microcirculation of gastric mucosa, renal cortex and the seromuscular layer of small bowel and colon were significantly reduced with each increase. Cardiac output (CO) decreased significantly at IAP levels above 10 mm Hg and the respiratory function data showed an increasing airway pressure and a concomitant reduction in thoracic compliance. Transmucosal passage of E. coli was increased three-fold in the small bowel after ACS with a significant correlation to the degree of mucosal microcirculatory reperfusion after exsufflation. 51Cr-EDTA permeability was unaffected. Bacterial passage in the colon was unchanged, whereas 51Cr-EDTA permeability after ACS increased by up to 181% of baseline and was correlated to significant histopathological changes in the mucosa.

In Paper I we have demonstrated that early rapid control of multiple bowel perforations in a model with moderate shock resulted in less impairment of SVR and PVR than conventional resection and anastomosis. The use of DCS principles, however, had no beneficial effect on cardiovascular function when haemorrhagic shock was combined with abdominal missile trauma (Paper II), on the contrary bowel ligation was followed by more prolonged lactic acidosis than conventional repair. The studies in Paper III and IV indicate that the microcirculation of intestinal mucosa and especially small bowel mucosa seem better preserved in response to intraabdominal hypertension caused by CO2 insufflation than other intraabdominal microvascular beds. The short term ACS in this model caused morphological changes in the intestinal mucosa, and mucosal barrier dysfunction. The response pattern concerning barrier function changes after CO2 insufflation differs between small bowel and colonic mucosa. The small bowel mucosa showed increased bacterial passage, and the colonic mucosa an increase in paracellular permeability and secretory response.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2008. 73 p.
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1085
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17796 (URN)978-91-7393-775-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-11-14, Katastrofmedicinskt Centrum, Campus US, Linköpings Universitet, Linköping, 13:00 (English)
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Available from: 2009-04-21 Created: 2009-04-21 Last updated: 2012-05-09Bibliographically approved

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Olofsson, PiaBerg, SörenCasimir Ahn, HenrikBrudin, LarsWikström, Thore

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Surgery Faculty of Health SciencesDepartment of Surgery in ÖstergötlandThoracic SurgeryDepartment of Thoracic and Vascular SurgeryClinical Physiology Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
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