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Varieties of reading disability: Phonological and orthographic word decoding deficits and implications for interventions
Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
2000 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The general aim of this thesis was to examine variations in the word decoding skills of reading disabled children. These variations were related to possible cognitive, developmental, and environmental causes of reading disability. Possible implications for educational interventions were also analysed.

The thesis critically examines the inclusion of the concept of intelligence in the definition of developmental dyslexia. It is suggested that variations in word decoding skills should offer a more solid basis for a study of varieties of reading disability. The empirical studies showed that a) in young children there was a shift from phonological to orthographic word decoding; b) phonological type children (weak in phonological decoding) were characterised by specific phonological deficits; c) surface type children (weak in orthographic decoding) showed more global cognitive deficits suggesting a general developmental delay; d) surface type children showed impaired visual implicit memory for words, which might be associated with limited print exposure; e) an improvement in phonological awareness only transferred to an improved text reading ability for some reading disabled children; f) children who did not benefit from a phonological intervention seemed to rely on orthographic word decoding in text reading.

Thus, the thesis suggests that variations in phonological and orthographic word decoding skills offer a useful basis for the study of varieties of reading disability and that educational interventions should pay regard to what the child is already attempting to do when reading.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2000. , 61 p.
Series
Studies from the Swedish Institute for Disability Research, ISSN 1650-1128 ; 1
Keyword [en]
Reading disability, dyslexia, word decoding, individual differences
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-16558ISBN: 91-7219-867-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-16558DiVA: diva2:158379
Public defence
2000-11-17, Eklundska salen, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:00 (English)
Supervisors
Note
On the day of the defence date the status of article IV was: Manuscript.Available from: 2009-02-02 Created: 2009-02-02 Last updated: 2012-01-24Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Intelligence and dyslexia: Implications for diagnosis and intervention
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Intelligence and dyslexia: Implications for diagnosis and intervention
1999 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 40, no 2, 127-134 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper we critically examine theoretical issues and practical consequences of including IQ in the definition of dyslexia. According to the discrepancy criterion individuals are classified as dyslexic if their reading skills are below what would be expected from their IQ scores. However, we argue that intelligence is a fuzzy concept and that there is no clear causal relationship between intelligence level and word decoding skills. Also, high and low IQ poor readers show the same reading performance patterns, indicating that both groups might benefit from the same remedial activities. Evidence for the critical role of phonological skills in dyslexia is presented and a more recent definition of dyslexia is discussed in relation to these findings. Finally, two alternative, more outcome-based classifications of poor readers are suggested and some critical consequences for individual interventions are outlined.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley InterScience, 1999
Keyword
Intelligence, dyslexia, diagnosis, intervention
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-16552 (URN)10.1111/1467-9450.00109 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-02-02 Created: 2009-02-02 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
2. The Development of Word-decoding Skills in Young Readers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Development of Word-decoding Skills in Young Readers
1996 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 40, no 4, 325-332 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Most of the research on the acquisition of word-decoding skills has almost exclusively focused on the ability to read words in isolation. The purpose of this article is to extend our knowledge to the independent role of phonological and orthographic word-decoding skills in the reading tasks which children encounter in school. The data were quite consistent with the general core of models suggesting that children first become proficient in phonological decoding then gradually shift towards a more direct orthographic-decoding strategy. As such, these findings have helped to generalize models of the acquisition of word-decoding skills to reading comprehension.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 1996
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-16553 (URN)10.1080/0031383960400404 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-02-02 Created: 2009-02-02 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
3. Visual and auditory priming in Swedish poor readers: a double dissociation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Visual and auditory priming in Swedish poor readers: a double dissociation
1998 (English)In: Dyslexia, ISSN 1076-9242, E-ISSN 1099-0909, Vol. 4, no 1, 16-29 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Schacter et al. (1990) found support for a functional dissociation between visual and auditory priming effects in a letter-by-letter reader. Their conclusions were based on the perceptual representation systems framework, suggesting that visual priming is mediated by a visual word form system separate from an auditory word form system responsible for auditory priming. This article focuses on visual and auditory priming effects exhibited by poor readers with phonological or surface subtypes of reading disability. The phonological type of reading disability was defined as an impairment in phonological word decoding, whereas the surface type of reading disability was defined as an impairment in orthographic word decoding. The results demonstrated a double dissociation, such that poor readers with a surface type of reading disability produced more auditory than visual priming, whereas poor readers with a phonological type of reading disability showed more visual than auditory priming. The majority of children with reading disabilities showed weaknesses in both orthographic and phonological word decoding and, importantly, low levels of priming effects for both visually and auditorily presented materials. Finally, age-matched normal readers showed significant priming effects for both visual and auditory presented words. These findings support the assumption that both orthographic and phonological skills can be simultaneously impaired and that a dual-route model for the acquisition of word decoding skills might be the most appropriate framework to describe different subtypes of reading disabilities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley InterScience, 1998
Keyword
Poor readers, subtypes of reading disabilities, auditory and visual priming, dissociations
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-16554 (URN)10.1002/(SICI)1099-0909(199803)4:1<16::AID-DYS97>3.0.CO;2-8 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-02-02 Created: 2009-02-02 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
4. Cognitive Abilities and Print Exposure in Surface and Phonological Types of Reading Disability
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cognitive Abilities and Print Exposure in Surface and Phonological Types of Reading Disability
2001 (English)In: Scientific Studies of Reading, ISSN 1088-8438, E-ISSN 1532-799X, Vol. 5, no 4, 351-375 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Subgroups of children with reading disabilities were identified by using the regression method introduced by Castles and Coltheart (1993). Children who were poor in phonological, compared to orthographic, word decoding were identified as phonological-type participants, and children who were poor in orthographic, compared to phonological, decoding were identified as surface-type participants. The results replicated previous findings reported that if categorizations are based on comparisons with younger reading-level-matched controls instead of age-matched controls, the number of surface-type children is significantly reduced. Surface-type children performed below the other groups on most cognitive measures and reported that there were fewer books in their homes, and phonological-type children showed a specific deficit in phonological word decoding. The results provided additional support for the hypothesis that the surface type of reading disability can be characterized as a general developmental delay.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routhledge,Taylor & Francis Group, 2001
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-16556 (URN)10.1207/S1532799XSSR0504_03 (DOI)
Note
On the day of the defence date the status of the article was: Manuscript.Available from: 2009-02-02 Created: 2009-02-02 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
5. Why Do Some Resist Phonological Intervention?: A Swedish longitudinal study of poor readers in Grade 4
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Why Do Some Resist Phonological Intervention?: A Swedish longitudinal study of poor readers in Grade 4
2000 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 44, no 2, 145 -162 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

n a longitudinal intervention study, 33 Swedish poor readers in Grade 4 received phonological awareness instruction over 1 year. Three control groups were included in the study: Grade 4 controls, Grade 2 controls (both comparable in reading skill) and normal readers. The results showed that the phonological training group made the most progress in phonological awareness but did not improve their reading skills any more than the controls. However, a re-analysis of the results revealed important individual differences within the phonological training group. Some children improved their reading ability considerably, while others seemed resistant to the intervention. One critical difference between improved and resistant readers was identified. For the improved readers, both orthographic and phonological word decoding predicted text reading performance. For the resistant readers, only orthographic decoding skills predicted text reading before, during and after the intervention, in spite of a steady increase in phonological awareness.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routhledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2000
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-16557 (URN)10.1080/713696666 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-02-02 Created: 2009-02-02 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved

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