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Using low precision floating point numbers to reduce memory cost for MP3 decoding
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0111-2384
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2004 (English)In: International Workshop on Multimedia Signal Processing, IEEE Xplore , 2004, 119-122 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of our work has been to evaluate the practicality of using a 16-bit floating point representation to store the intermediate sample values and other data in memory during the decoding of MP3 bit streams. A floating point number representation offers a better trade-off between dynamic range and precision than a fixed point representation for a given word length. Using a floating point representation means that smaller memories can be used which leads to smaller chip area and lower power consumption without reducing sound quality. We have designed and implemented a DSP processor based on 16-bit floating point intermediate storage. The DSP processor is capable of decoding all MP3 bit streams at 20 MHz and this has been demonstrated on an FPGA prototype.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Xplore , 2004. 119-122 p.
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-16559DOI: 10.1109/MMSP.2004.1436435ISBN: 0-7803-8578-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-16559DiVA: diva2:158386
Available from: 2009-02-02 Created: 2009-02-02 Last updated: 2015-02-18Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Performance driven FPGA design with an ASIC perspective
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance driven FPGA design with an ASIC perspective
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

FPGA devices are an important component in many modern devices. This means that it is important that VLSI designers have a thorough knowledge of how to optimize designs for FPGAs. While the design flows for ASICs and FPGAs are similar, there are many differences as well due to the limitations inherent in FPGA devices. To be able to use an FPGA efficiently it is important to be aware of both the strengths and oweaknesses of FPGAs. If an FPGA design should be ported to an ASIC at a later stage it is also important to take this into account early in the design cycle so that the ASIC port will be efficient.

This thesis investigates how to optimize a design for an FPGA through a number of case studies of important SoC components. One of these case studies discusses high speed processors and the tradeoffs that are necessary when constructing very high speed processors in FPGAs. The processor has a maximum clock frequency of 357~MHz in a Xilinx Virtex-4 devices of the fastest speedgrade, which is significantly higher than Xilinx' own processor in the same FPGA.

Another case study investigates floating point datapaths and describes how a floating point adder and multiplier can be efficiently implemented in an FPGA.

The final case study investigates Network-on-Chip architectures and how these can be optimized for FPGAs. The main focus is on packet switched architectures, but a circuit switched architecture optimized for FPGAs is also investigated.

All of these case studies also contain information about potential pitfalls when porting designs optimized for an FPGA to an ASIC. The focus in this case is on systems where initial low volume production will be using FPGAs while still keeping the option open to port the design to an ASIC if the demand is high. This information will also be useful for designers who want to create IP cores that can be efficiently mapped to both FPGAs and ASICs.

Finally, a framework is also presented which allows for the creation of custom backend tools for the Xilinx design flow. The framework is already useful for some tasks, but the main reason for including it is to inspire researchers and developers to use this powerful ability in their own design tools.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2009. 165 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1237
Keyword
FPGA Optimizations, ASIC and FPGA codesign
National Category
Computer Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-16372 (URN)978-91-7393-702-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-02-27, Visionen, Hus B, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-02-02 Created: 2009-01-19 Last updated: 2015-02-18Bibliographically approved
2. ASIP for Wireless Communication and Media
Open this publication in new window or tab >>ASIP for Wireless Communication and Media
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

While general purpose processors reach both high performance and high application flexibility, this comes at a high cost in terms of silicon area and power consumption. In systems where high application flexibility is not required, it is possible to trade off flexibility for lower cost by tailoring the processor to the application to create an Application Specific Instruction set Processor (ASIP) with high performance yet low silicon cost.

This thesis demonstrates how ASIPs with application specific data types can provide efficient solutions with lower cost. Two examples are presented, an audio decoder ASIP for audio and music processing and a matrix manipulation ASIP for MIMO radio baseband signal processing.

The audio decoder ASIP uses a 16-bit floating point data type to reduce the size of the data memory to about 60% of other solutions that use a 32-bit data type. Since the data memory occupies a major part of the silicon area, this has a significant impact on the total silicon area, and thereby also the static and dynamic power consumption. The data width reduction can be done without any noticeable artifacts in the decoded audio due to the natural masking effect ofthe human ear.

The matrix manipulation SIMD ASIP is designed to perform various matrix operations such as matrix inversion and QR decomposition of small complex-valued matrices. This type of processing is found in MIMO radio baseband signal processing and the matrices are typically not larger than 4x4. There have been solutions published that use arrays of fixed-function processing elements to perform these operations, but the proposed ASIP performs the computations in less time and with lower hardware cost.

The matrix manipulation ASIP data path uses a floating point data type to avoid data scaling issues associated with fixed point computations, especially those related to division and reciprocal calculations, and it also simplifies the program control flow since no special cases for certain inputs are needed which is especially important for SIMD architectures.

These two applications were chosen to show how ASIPs can be a suitable alternative and match the requirements for different types of applications, to provide enough flexibility and performance to support different standards and algorithms with low hardware cost.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2010. 43 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1298
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-65355 (URN)978-91-7393-450-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-02-26, Visionen, Hus B, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-02-04 Created: 2011-02-04 Last updated: 2011-02-04Bibliographically approved

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Eilert, Johan Ehliar, Andreas Liu, Dake

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