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Developing integration in a local industrial ecosystem: An explorative approach
Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2007 (English)In: Business Strategy and the Environment, ISSN 0964-4733, Vol. 16, no 6, 442-455 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The objective of this study is to develop and evaluate an approach for initiating development of a local industrial symbiosis network. By maintaining the broad perspective of industrial symbiosis, which includes both material and energy flow analysis, and also taking into account the internal energy use and possibilities for energy savings, we aim to achieve a better system view that avoids both sub-optimizations and unhealthy dependencies. The approach is applied to a case based on the cooperation between the forest industry, municipality and energy service company in a small town in southern Sweden. Several possibilities for improving material and energy use by increasing integration were identified. It was concluded that it is important to have a genuine knowledge of the system studied and close contact with the actors involved, since a simple analysis of energy and material flows is not sufficient to decide which solutions might be more advantageous. It is also important to have a flexible system boundary looking at the system from different perspectives and at different levels to find the best uses for existing energy and material streams.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2007. Vol. 16, no 6, 442-455 p.
Keyword [en]
industrial ecology, eco-industrial parks, industrial symbiosis networks, forest industry, integration, energy system analysis
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12641DOI: 10.1002/bse.485OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-12641DiVA: diva2:16761
Available from: 2007-10-15 Created: 2007-10-15 Last updated: 2014-02-05
In thesis
1. Industrial Symbiosis in the Swedish Forest Industry
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Industrial Symbiosis in the Swedish Forest Industry
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Forskningen som presenteras i denna avhandling anknyter till forskningsfältet Industriell Ekologi och då särskilt den gren som kallas Industriell Symbios (IS). Inom IS förordas att ett företag kan öka produktionen och samtidigt minska resursanvändningen genom att effektivt integrera energi och materialflöden i ett större system. Utbyte av tex spillvärme och biprodukter mellan olika industrier kan minska behovet av primärvärme och råmaterial. Syftet med avhandlingen är att undersöka hur det teoretiska ramverk som byggts upp inom IS kan appliceras på den svenska skogsindustrin. Detta leder till empiriskt material som kan bidra till vidare teroriutveckling, samt ger en insikt om hur IS kan bidra till resurseffektiviteten inom skogsindustrin. Avhandlingen behandlar teman som existens, utveckling och utvärdering av integrerade system. Främst baseras resultaten på fallstudier, bl a från Kisa, Mönsterås, Värö och Forssjöbruk. För att utvärdera ekonomiska och miljömässiga aspekter (främst CO2 utsläpp) har ven ett optimeringsprogram använts (MIND).

Resultaten visar att flera fall av industriell symbios existerar inom svensk skogsindustri redan idag och att samarbetena betraktas som gynnsamma av de ingående parterna. Det visas även att förutsättningarna för att implementera IS varierar beroende på vilken typ av system som avses. De viktigaste gemensamma nämnarna för alla system är en positiv attityd från företagens sida, en vilja att agera, och maktrelationer i företagen. Brist på resurser, bristfällig miljölagstiftning, tidsramar för investeringar samt risker med att satsa på ny teknik är de viktigaste hindren som identifierats. Resultaten från utvärderingen indikerar att IS kan ha fördelar både ur ett ekonomiskt och miljömässigt perspektiv. Dock visas tydligt att resultaten varierar avsevärt beroende på vilka antaganden som görs och slutsatsen är därför att ett noggrannt val av metod, systemgräns och randvillkor är av yttersta vikt och varierar beroende på studiens syfte.

Abstract [en]

The research presented in this thesis draws upon the research field of Industrial Ecology, in particular Industrial Symbiosis (IS), assuming that it is possible for an industry to increase its product value and simultaneously decrease its use of resources and production of waste material if its material and energy flows are effectively integrated into a larger system. The objective of this work was to apply the framework of IS to the Swedish forest industry, both to gain empirical evidence, which can be used for further conceptual development, and to evaluate how the industrial symbiosis approach can contribute to the forest industry. Occurrence, development and evaluation of integrated systems have been addressed. The results are mainly based on case studies. To evaluate the economic and environmental effects of industrial symbiosis the MIND method, which is an optimization program

based on mixed integer linear programming, has been used.

It is argued that several cases of industrial symbiosis exist within the Swedish forest industry today, and in the cases studied the integration is considered fruitful from the companies’ point of view. The human dimensions of increased integration are discussed, and it is seen that the conditions for implementation differ depending on the type of system considered. The most important conditions common for all systems are a positive attitude from the companies involved, willingness to act and power relations. Lack of resources, imperfect environmental regulations, time frames and the risks involved when adopting new technologies were among the barriers identified. The results from the evaluation indicate some support to the theories that industrial symbiosis can have benefits both from an economical and an environmental point of view. However, it is seen that the results vary

considerably depending on the assumptions made and it is concluded that great care should be taken in choosing method and boundary conditions depending on the case and the nature of the study, the MIND method being one possible method.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, 2007. 104 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1133
Keyword
forest industry, integration, industrial symbiosis, evaluation, human dimensions, MIND method, skogsindustri, integration, industriell symbios, utvärdering, implementering, MIND-metoden
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-10025 (URN)978-91-85895-86-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2007-10-26, C3, Hus C, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2007-10-15 Created: 2007-10-15 Last updated: 2014-02-05
2. Developing efficient industrial systems through increased integration: applications in the forest industry
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developing efficient industrial systems through increased integration: applications in the forest industry
2005 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The starting point of this work is that it is possible for an industry to increase its product value and simultaneously decrease its use of resources and production of waste material if its material and energy flows are effectively integrated into a larger system. The character and the extent of a company's environmental impact is to a large extent determined in this interaction between companies and other external actors.

The objective of this study was to find and evaluate examples of integration in the Swedish forest industry, and to develop an approach for initiating integration. The results are based on socio-technical case studies, and functionality, organisation and development of integrated systems have been addressed. The types of integration discussed are integrated biofuel upgrading, material and energy exchange between industries and/ or community, and the possibility to initiate the development of a local industrial ecosystem. It is argued that a certain degree of integration exists within the forest industry today, and in the cases studied here the integration is considered fruitful from the companies' point of view. Some means of improvement are suggested in the systems studied and it is confirmed that these can give environmental advantages.

The human dimensions of increased integration are discussed, and it is seen that the conditions for implementation differ depending on the type of system considered. The most important conditions common for all systems are a positive attitude from the companies involved and a willingness to act. One factor that can have both a positive and a negative impact is if the company is part of a larger group. With regard to the integration of biofuel upgrading, it is seen that it is important to show that the biofuel combine is a way to develop the company in its strategic direction. Important factors for the development of a local industrial ecosystem were local roots and good knowledge of the system. Lack of resources, imperfect environmental regulations, time frames and the risks involved when adopting new technologies were among the barriers identified.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköpings universitet, 2005. 54 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1142Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 71
Keyword
forest industry, integration, industrial ecology, energy efficiency, co-operation, biofuel
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-29224 (URN)14504 (Local ID)91-85297-12-7 (ISBN)14504 (Archive number)14504 (OAI)
Presentation
2005-01-25, Hållfasthetsläras seminarierum, Hus A, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2013-11-12

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Wolf, AnnaEklund, MatsSöderström, Mats

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