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Industrial Symbiosis in the Swedish Forest Industry
Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
Hifab AB, Envipro Miljöteknik, Linköping, Sweden.
2007 (English)In: Progress in Industrial Ecology, An International Journal, ISSN 1478-8764, Vol. 4, no 5, 348-362 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the research field of Industrial Symbiosis (IS), by-product synergies between industries have been studied with the objective of decreasing the environmental impact of industrial activity and simultaneously increasing profit for the companies involved. Many theoretical models and definitions have been suggested, although only a limited number of examples are documented in the literature. Existing IS initiatives, such as Kalundborg in Denmark, are sometimes presented as rare examples. In this paper, we argue that IS initiatives can be found to some extent in industry today, although they might not be labelled as such. One objective of finding existing IS initiatives is that they can be a starting point for broader industrial ecology. In this study, we made an inventory of the existing exchanges of material and energy in the Swedish forest industry. The results illustrate that IS in the form of by-product exchange networks exist in the forest industry sector as more than a third of the investigated companies have some kind of material or energy exchange with adjacent entities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2007. Vol. 4, no 5, 348-362 p.
Keyword [en]
industrial ecology, industrial symbiosis, by-product exchange, forest industry, Sweden, environmental impact, forestry
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12643DOI: 10.1504/PIE.2007.015616OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-12643DiVA: diva2:16763
Available from: 2007-10-15 Created: 2007-10-15 Last updated: 2014-02-05
In thesis
1. Industrial Symbiosis in the Swedish Forest Industry
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Industrial Symbiosis in the Swedish Forest Industry
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Forskningen som presenteras i denna avhandling anknyter till forskningsfältet Industriell Ekologi och då särskilt den gren som kallas Industriell Symbios (IS). Inom IS förordas att ett företag kan öka produktionen och samtidigt minska resursanvändningen genom att effektivt integrera energi och materialflöden i ett större system. Utbyte av tex spillvärme och biprodukter mellan olika industrier kan minska behovet av primärvärme och råmaterial. Syftet med avhandlingen är att undersöka hur det teoretiska ramverk som byggts upp inom IS kan appliceras på den svenska skogsindustrin. Detta leder till empiriskt material som kan bidra till vidare teroriutveckling, samt ger en insikt om hur IS kan bidra till resurseffektiviteten inom skogsindustrin. Avhandlingen behandlar teman som existens, utveckling och utvärdering av integrerade system. Främst baseras resultaten på fallstudier, bl a från Kisa, Mönsterås, Värö och Forssjöbruk. För att utvärdera ekonomiska och miljömässiga aspekter (främst CO2 utsläpp) har ven ett optimeringsprogram använts (MIND).

Resultaten visar att flera fall av industriell symbios existerar inom svensk skogsindustri redan idag och att samarbetena betraktas som gynnsamma av de ingående parterna. Det visas även att förutsättningarna för att implementera IS varierar beroende på vilken typ av system som avses. De viktigaste gemensamma nämnarna för alla system är en positiv attityd från företagens sida, en vilja att agera, och maktrelationer i företagen. Brist på resurser, bristfällig miljölagstiftning, tidsramar för investeringar samt risker med att satsa på ny teknik är de viktigaste hindren som identifierats. Resultaten från utvärderingen indikerar att IS kan ha fördelar både ur ett ekonomiskt och miljömässigt perspektiv. Dock visas tydligt att resultaten varierar avsevärt beroende på vilka antaganden som görs och slutsatsen är därför att ett noggrannt val av metod, systemgräns och randvillkor är av yttersta vikt och varierar beroende på studiens syfte.

Abstract [en]

The research presented in this thesis draws upon the research field of Industrial Ecology, in particular Industrial Symbiosis (IS), assuming that it is possible for an industry to increase its product value and simultaneously decrease its use of resources and production of waste material if its material and energy flows are effectively integrated into a larger system. The objective of this work was to apply the framework of IS to the Swedish forest industry, both to gain empirical evidence, which can be used for further conceptual development, and to evaluate how the industrial symbiosis approach can contribute to the forest industry. Occurrence, development and evaluation of integrated systems have been addressed. The results are mainly based on case studies. To evaluate the economic and environmental effects of industrial symbiosis the MIND method, which is an optimization program

based on mixed integer linear programming, has been used.

It is argued that several cases of industrial symbiosis exist within the Swedish forest industry today, and in the cases studied the integration is considered fruitful from the companies’ point of view. The human dimensions of increased integration are discussed, and it is seen that the conditions for implementation differ depending on the type of system considered. The most important conditions common for all systems are a positive attitude from the companies involved, willingness to act and power relations. Lack of resources, imperfect environmental regulations, time frames and the risks involved when adopting new technologies were among the barriers identified. The results from the evaluation indicate some support to the theories that industrial symbiosis can have benefits both from an economical and an environmental point of view. However, it is seen that the results vary

considerably depending on the assumptions made and it is concluded that great care should be taken in choosing method and boundary conditions depending on the case and the nature of the study, the MIND method being one possible method.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, 2007. 104 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1133
Keyword
forest industry, integration, industrial symbiosis, evaluation, human dimensions, MIND method, skogsindustri, integration, industriell symbios, utvärdering, implementering, MIND-metoden
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-10025 (URN)978-91-85895-86-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2007-10-26, C3, Hus C, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2007-10-15 Created: 2007-10-15 Last updated: 2014-02-05

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Wolf, Anna

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