liu.seSearch for publications in DiVA
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Industrial Symbiosis in the Swedish Forest Industry
Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Forskningen som presenteras i denna avhandling anknyter till forskningsfältet Industriell Ekologi och då särskilt den gren som kallas Industriell Symbios (IS). Inom IS förordas att ett företag kan öka produktionen och samtidigt minska resursanvändningen genom att effektivt integrera energi och materialflöden i ett större system. Utbyte av tex spillvärme och biprodukter mellan olika industrier kan minska behovet av primärvärme och råmaterial. Syftet med avhandlingen är att undersöka hur det teoretiska ramverk som byggts upp inom IS kan appliceras på den svenska skogsindustrin. Detta leder till empiriskt material som kan bidra till vidare teroriutveckling, samt ger en insikt om hur IS kan bidra till resurseffektiviteten inom skogsindustrin. Avhandlingen behandlar teman som existens, utveckling och utvärdering av integrerade system. Främst baseras resultaten på fallstudier, bl a från Kisa, Mönsterås, Värö och Forssjöbruk. För att utvärdera ekonomiska och miljömässiga aspekter (främst CO2 utsläpp) har ven ett optimeringsprogram använts (MIND).

Resultaten visar att flera fall av industriell symbios existerar inom svensk skogsindustri redan idag och att samarbetena betraktas som gynnsamma av de ingående parterna. Det visas även att förutsättningarna för att implementera IS varierar beroende på vilken typ av system som avses. De viktigaste gemensamma nämnarna för alla system är en positiv attityd från företagens sida, en vilja att agera, och maktrelationer i företagen. Brist på resurser, bristfällig miljölagstiftning, tidsramar för investeringar samt risker med att satsa på ny teknik är de viktigaste hindren som identifierats. Resultaten från utvärderingen indikerar att IS kan ha fördelar både ur ett ekonomiskt och miljömässigt perspektiv. Dock visas tydligt att resultaten varierar avsevärt beroende på vilka antaganden som görs och slutsatsen är därför att ett noggrannt val av metod, systemgräns och randvillkor är av yttersta vikt och varierar beroende på studiens syfte.

Abstract [en]

The research presented in this thesis draws upon the research field of Industrial Ecology, in particular Industrial Symbiosis (IS), assuming that it is possible for an industry to increase its product value and simultaneously decrease its use of resources and production of waste material if its material and energy flows are effectively integrated into a larger system. The objective of this work was to apply the framework of IS to the Swedish forest industry, both to gain empirical evidence, which can be used for further conceptual development, and to evaluate how the industrial symbiosis approach can contribute to the forest industry. Occurrence, development and evaluation of integrated systems have been addressed. The results are mainly based on case studies. To evaluate the economic and environmental effects of industrial symbiosis the MIND method, which is an optimization program

based on mixed integer linear programming, has been used.

It is argued that several cases of industrial symbiosis exist within the Swedish forest industry today, and in the cases studied the integration is considered fruitful from the companies’ point of view. The human dimensions of increased integration are discussed, and it is seen that the conditions for implementation differ depending on the type of system considered. The most important conditions common for all systems are a positive attitude from the companies involved, willingness to act and power relations. Lack of resources, imperfect environmental regulations, time frames and the risks involved when adopting new technologies were among the barriers identified. The results from the evaluation indicate some support to the theories that industrial symbiosis can have benefits both from an economical and an environmental point of view. However, it is seen that the results vary

considerably depending on the assumptions made and it is concluded that great care should be taken in choosing method and boundary conditions depending on the case and the nature of the study, the MIND method being one possible method.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling , 2007. , 104 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1133
Keyword [en]
forest industry, integration, industrial symbiosis, evaluation, human dimensions, MIND method
Keyword [sv]
skogsindustri, integration, industriell symbios, utvärdering, implementering, MIND-metoden
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-10025ISBN: 978-91-85895-86-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-10025DiVA: diva2:16766
Public defence
2007-10-26, C3, Hus C, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2007-10-15 Created: 2007-10-15 Last updated: 2014-02-05
List of papers
1. Energy efficient pellet production in the forest industry: A study of obstacles and success factors
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy efficient pellet production in the forest industry: A study of obstacles and success factors
2005 (English)In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, Vol. 30, no 1, 38-45 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

With an expanding market for upgraded biofuel in many countries, it is important to develop efficient production methods for upgrading wet biomass. The possibilities for heat recovery can be improved if the upgrading process is integrated with other energy-intensive processes, as for example a pulp mill or a sawmill, in a biofuel combine. This work evaluates obstacles and success factors for forming such biofuel combines with the forest industry. Case studies and calculations on theoretical cases have been used together with literature references to evaluate how a biofuel combine can be realised and to compile obstacles and success factors for a combine.

It could be seen from the case studies that an excess of by-products and waste heat, together with an existing need for investments are important driving forces for the formation of biofuel combines in the forest industry. The market was also identified as an important factor, which can be both an obstacle and a success factor depending on the situation. It was concluded that the existence of a small-scale pellet market near the plant is important for economic feasibility when sawdust is used as raw material. The conditions for the biofuel combine are different depending on the form of ownership. When a pulp mill or sawmill owns the pellet factory, it was concluded that minimising the risk by using well-known technologies can be an important factor for the realisation of the combine.

Keyword
Pellet production; Biofuel combine; Energy efficiency; Forest industry; Success factors
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12640 (URN)10.1016/j.biombioe.2005.09.003 (DOI)
Available from: 2007-10-15 Created: 2007-10-15 Last updated: 2014-02-05
2. Developing integration in a local industrial ecosystem: An explorative approach
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developing integration in a local industrial ecosystem: An explorative approach
2007 (English)In: Business Strategy and the Environment, ISSN 0964-4733, Vol. 16, no 6, 442-455 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The objective of this study is to develop and evaluate an approach for initiating development of a local industrial symbiosis network. By maintaining the broad perspective of industrial symbiosis, which includes both material and energy flow analysis, and also taking into account the internal energy use and possibilities for energy savings, we aim to achieve a better system view that avoids both sub-optimizations and unhealthy dependencies. The approach is applied to a case based on the cooperation between the forest industry, municipality and energy service company in a small town in southern Sweden. Several possibilities for improving material and energy use by increasing integration were identified. It was concluded that it is important to have a genuine knowledge of the system studied and close contact with the actors involved, since a simple analysis of energy and material flows is not sufficient to decide which solutions might be more advantageous. It is also important to have a flexible system boundary looking at the system from different perspectives and at different levels to find the best uses for existing energy and material streams.

Keyword
industrial ecology, eco-industrial parks, industrial symbiosis networks, forest industry, integration, energy system analysis
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12641 (URN)10.1002/bse.485 (DOI)
Available from: 2007-10-15 Created: 2007-10-15 Last updated: 2014-02-05
3. Towards cooperation in industrial symbiosis: considering the importance of the human dimension
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards cooperation in industrial symbiosis: considering the importance of the human dimension
2005 (English)In: Progress in Industrial Ecology – An International Journal, ISSN 1476-8917, Vol. 2, no 2, 185-199 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The objective of this study is to evaluate the human dimensions of improving energy and material-use efficiency of a system through increased integration and exchange between local actors. The results are based on a case study of a Swedish municipality with a developed forest industry. The actors' views are discussed together with the most important factors to enable increased integration and for exchange to take place. The greatest barriers found were the lack of knowledge and resources, attitudes, time frames, development consent, and lack of continuity and local power for some companies. One conclusion is that the municipal authority could have a role as coordinator of local integration projects. However, this role can be impeded by the weak integration of different divisions in the municipality's organisation and it is suggested that companies with integration as their business concept can be key actors when developing more integrated networks. It was also clear that intraorganisational issues may impede interorganisational integration.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12642 (URN)10.1504/PIE.2005.007187 (DOI)
Available from: 2007-10-15 Created: 2007-10-15 Last updated: 2014-02-05
4. Industrial Symbiosis in the Swedish Forest Industry
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Industrial Symbiosis in the Swedish Forest Industry
2007 (English)In: Progress in Industrial Ecology, An International Journal, ISSN 1476-8917, E-ISSN 1478-8764, Vol. 4, no 5, 348-362 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the research field of Industrial Symbiosis (IS), by-product synergies between industries have been studied with the objective of decreasing the environmental impact of industrial activity and simultaneously increasing profit for the companies involved. Many theoretical models and definitions have been suggested, although only a limited number of examples are documented in the literature. Existing IS initiatives, such as Kalundborg in Denmark, are sometimes presented as rare examples. In this paper, we argue that IS initiatives can be found to some extent in industry today, although they might not be labelled as such. One objective of finding existing IS initiatives is that they can be a starting point for broader industrial ecology. In this study, we made an inventory of the existing exchanges of material and energy in the Swedish forest industry. The results illustrate that IS in the form of by-product exchange networks exist in the forest industry sector as more than a third of the investigated companies have some kind of material or energy exchange with adjacent entities.

Keyword
industrial ecology, industrial symbiosis, by-product exchange, forest industry, Sweden, environmental impact, forestry
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12643 (URN)10.1504/PIE.2007.015616 (DOI)
Available from: 2007-10-15 Created: 2007-10-15 Last updated: 2017-12-14
5. Using an optimisation model to evaluate industrial symbiosis in the forest industry
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using an optimisation model to evaluate industrial symbiosis in the forest industry
2008 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 16, no 14, 1536-1544 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this work, a model comprising a pulp mill, a sawmill, a district heating network and a biofuel upgrading plant is used to demonstrate how the MIND method, an optimization method based on mixed integer linear programming, can be used to evaluate industrial symbiosis in the forest industry. Using this method, both energy and material flows on both the supply and the demand side can be studied simultaneously. The method can be used to find improvements in the structure of the modelled system, to find the optimal operational strategy of a given system, and to evaluate and compare different systems. The total system costs for stand-alone cases and integrated industrial symbiosis system configuration are compared, generating results that can be used as decision support when planning industrial symbiosis initiatives in the forest industry. The results of this study showed that there are financial benefits to industrial symbiosis compared to the same system operated in stand-alone mode, and that the industrial symbiosis configuration generates a more stable system. However, it is difficult to generalize the results from a case study, and the main conclusion drawn is that it is possible to show that industrial symbiosis has economical benefits, although the magnitude of these benefits needs to be evaluated from case to case.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 2008
Keyword
Industrial symbiosis, Forest industry, Economic evaluation, Optimization, MIND method
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12644 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2007.08.017 (DOI)000258418100010 ()
Available from: 2007-10-15 Created: 2007-10-15 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
6. Evaluating the environmental benefits of industrial symbiosis: discussion and demonstration of a new approach
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating the environmental benefits of industrial symbiosis: discussion and demonstration of a new approach
2008 (English)In: Progress in Industrial Ecology, An International Journal, ISSN 1476-8917, E-ISSN 1478-8764, Vol. 5, no 5-6, 502-517 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, a computer model that includes a pulp mill, a paper mill, a sawmill and a biofuel upgrading plant, together with the possible energy and material exchanges between them, is used to evaluate the environmental impact of a possible Industrial Symbiosis (IS) arrangement in the forest industry. The method used is called the Method for analysis of INDustrial energy systems (MIND), which is an optimisation method based on mixed integer linear programming. In this study, the emission of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) from the symbiosis system is compared to that from a system of stand-alone plants. We also discuss some of the reasons why measurement of environmental benefits is problematic, as well as the applicability of the method compared to some other frequently used methods for accounting for CO2 emissions and other environmental issues.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
InderScience Publishers, 2008
Keyword
industrial symbiosis, environmental assessment, MIND method, optimisation, CO2 emissions
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12645 (URN)10.1504/PIE.2008.023413 (DOI)
Available from: 2007-10-15 Created: 2007-10-15 Last updated: 2017-12-14

Open Access in DiVA

cover(543 kB)43 downloads
File information
File name COVER01.pdfFile size 543 kBChecksum MD5
9021d2c76d56be2cbe6e757b57ddbc322363ad931ba5392c7b3ccff872a35953ceca5add
Type coverMimetype application/pdf
fulltext(630 kB)2937 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 630 kBChecksum MD5
b4ba5be56d4253f297ad2edd6ea77192fc7290808089940045e37230543b4aee1fb8285d
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Authority records BETA

Wolf, Anna

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Wolf, Anna
By organisation
The Institute of TechnologyEnergy Systems
Other Environmental Engineering

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 2937 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 3620 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf