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Sounds of silence: Phonological awareness and written language in children with and without speech
Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Avhandlingens övergripande syfte var att undersöka fonologisk medvetenhet och skriftspråklig förmåga hos talande eller icke-talande barn, med lässvårigheter eller motoriska talsvårigheter. De huvudsakliga fynden i denna avhandling var: (1) För barn med lässvårigheter som befinner sig på en tidig nivå i sin läsutveckling bör intervention kring läs- och skrivförmågor fokusera på barnets svaghet snarare än styrkan vad gäller ordavkodning. (2) För barn med lässvårigheter hade såväl fonologisk som ortografisk intervention effekt på förmågan att läsa och skriva. Fonologisk intervention hade effekt även på barnen med lägst läsförmåga. (3) För barn med motoriska talsvårigheter var det signifikanta skillnader mellan de bästa och de sämsta läsarna vad gäller auditiv fonemdiskrimination och generella språkförmågor. (4) För barn med motoriska talsvårigheter hade fonologisk intervention effekt på förmågan att stava ord men inte på läsförmågan. (5) I en analys av nonsensord undersöktes stavfel hos en flicka med anartri. Fler stavfel återfanns i längre ord och en högre grad av fel återfanns i mitten av ord, vilket tyder på svårigheter med arbetsminne och med att segmentera ord.

Fynden diskuteras i relation till fonologisk informationsbearbetning inom fyra delområden: fonologiska representationer, fonologisk produktion, fonologiskt minne och fonologisk medvetenhet. Talets betydelse för läs- och skrivförmågan är komplex. Även ett gravt avvikande tal kan ge fonologisk återkoppling och för barn med anartri tycks bristen på tal spela en viss roll.

Denna avhandling har ett handikappvetenskapligt synsätt och bidrar till den övergripande förståelsen av fonologisk medvetenhet och skriftspråklig förmåga. Flera av fynden är direkt applicerbara i kliniska sammanhang.

Abstract [en]

The general aim of this thesis was to explore phonological awareness and written language in the presence and absence of speech in children with reading impairments and children with motor speech impairments. The main findings of the present thesis were: (1) For children with reading impairments who are at an early stage of reading development, interventions targeting reading and spelling should focus on their weakness rather than their strength in word decoding. (2) For children with reading impairments, phonological as well as orthographic intervention had effects on reading and spelling. The children with the lowest reading performance also showed effects of phonological intervention. (3) For children with motor speech impairments, significant differences were shown between low level readers and high level readers in the areas of auditory phoneme discrimination skills and general language skills. (4) For children with motor speech impairments, phonological intervention had effect on word spelling skills but not on reading skills. (5) In an analysis of non-word spelling errors of a girl with anarthria, more spelling errors were found on longer words, and a higher proportion of spelling errors were found in medial letter positions, implying deficit in segmentation of spoken words and working memory.

The findings were discussed in relation to four subfields of phonological processing: phonological representations, phonological production, phonological memory and phonological awareness. The contributions of speech to reading and spelling are complex. Even a severely distorted speech can serve as a phonological feedback and for children with anarthria, the lack of speech does seem to play a role.

The present thesis has a disability research approach and is a contribution to the overall understanding of phonological awareness and written language. Many of the findings are directly applicable to the clinical context.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2007. , 64 + papers 1-4 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Arts and Science, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 407Studies from the Swedish Institute for Disability Research, ISSN 1650-1128 ; 23
Keyword [en]
phonological awareness, intervention, motor speech impairment, reading impairment, reading, spelling, literacy
Keyword [sv]
läshandikapp, läsning, stavning, läs- och skrivförmåga, fonologisk medvetenhet, intervention, talhandikapp
National Category
Social Work
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-10184ISBN: 978-91-85895-74-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-10184DiVA: diva2:16939
Public defence
2007-11-09, Key 1, Key, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2007-11-08 Created: 2007-11-08 Last updated: 2014-09-10Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Phonological or orthographic training for children with phonological or orthographic decoding deficits
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phonological or orthographic training for children with phonological or orthographic decoding deficits
2007 (English)In: Dyslexia, ISSN 1076-9242, Vol. 13, no 3, 211-229 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In a longitudinal intervention study, Swedish reading disabled children in grades 2-3 received either a phonological (n = 41) or an orthographic (n = 39) training program. Both programs were computerized and interventions took place in ordinary school settings with trained special instruction teachers. Two comparison groups, ordinary special instruction and normal readers, were also included in the study. Results showed strong average training effects on text reading and general word decoding for both phonological and orthographic training, but not significantly higher improvements than for the comparison groups. The main research finding was a double dissociation: children with pronounced phonological problems improved their general word decoding skill more from phonological than from orthographic training, whereas the opposite was observed for children with pronounced orthographic problems. Thus, in this population of children, training should focus on children's relative weakness rather than their relative strength in word decoding.

Keyword
intervention, phonological training, orthographic training, reading disability, word decoding
National Category
Social Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12731 (URN)10.1002/dys.339 (DOI)
Available from: 2007-11-08 Created: 2007-11-08 Last updated: 2009-04-28
2. Reading why not?: Literacy skills in children with motor and speech impairments
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reading why not?: Literacy skills in children with motor and speech impairments
2007 (English)In: Communication Disorders Quarterly, ISSN 1525-7401, E-ISSN 1538-4837, Vol. 28, no 4, 236-251 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, 12 participants with various levels of motor and speech deficits were tested to explore their reading skills in relation to letter knowledge, speech level, auditory discrimination, phonological awareness, language skills, digit span, and nonverbal IQ. Two subgroups, based on a median split of reading performance, are described: the low- and high-level readers, where low-level readers perform significantly lower on reading than the other subgroup. The subgroups had a general tendency to perform low versus high on most variables tested, but not on digit span. The study stresses the importance of auditory discrimination skills and general language skills as a fundamental base for literacy. The study also generates new hypotheses that will need to be investigated further. For example, further intervention studies for phonological awareness are proposed, and a hypothesis about the effect of impaired articulation usage during reading is presented.

Keyword
auditory discrimination, literacy, motor disability, phonological awareness, speech impairment
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12732 (URN)10.1177/1525740107311814 (DOI)
Available from: 2007-11-08 Created: 2007-11-08 Last updated: 2017-12-14
3. Phonological awareness training to teach children with impairments in reading or speech
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phonological awareness training to teach children with impairments in reading or speech
2007 (English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12733 (URN)
Available from: 2007-11-08 Created: 2007-11-08
4. The spelling of silence: Spelling error analysis of an anarthric Bliss user
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The spelling of silence: Spelling error analysis of an anarthric Bliss user
2007 (English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12734 (URN)
Available from: 2007-11-08 Created: 2007-11-08

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Ferreira, Janna

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