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Experiments in 3D Interaction for Mobile Phone AR
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
University of Nottingham.
University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.
2007 (English)In: Proceedings of the 5th international conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques in Australia and Southeast Asia, Perth, Australia, New York: The Association for Computing Machinery, Inc. , 2007, 187-194 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this paper we present an evaluation of several different techniques for virtual object positioning and rotation on a mobile phone. We compare gesture input captured by the phone's front camera, to tangible input, keypad interaction and phone tilting in increasingly complex positioning and rotation tasks in an AR context. Usability experiments found that tangible input techniques are best for translation tasks, while keypad input is best for rotation tasks. Implications for the design of mobile phone 3D interfaces are presented as well as directions for future research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: The Association for Computing Machinery, Inc. , 2007. 187-194 p.
Keyword [en]
3D interaction, augmented reality, mobile graphics
National Category
Computer Vision and Robotics (Autonomous Systems)
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12745DOI: 10.1145/1321261.1321295ISBN: 978-1-59593-912-8OAI: diva2:16961
Available from: 2007-11-20 Created: 2007-11-20 Last updated: 2013-07-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Bringing Augmented Reality to Mobile Phones
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bringing Augmented Reality to Mobile Phones
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

With its mixing of real and virtual, Augmented Reality (AR) is a technology that has attracted lots of attention from the science community and is seen as a perfect way to visualize context-related information. Computer generated graphics is presented to the user overlaid and registered with the real world and hence augmenting it. Promising intelligence amplification and higher productivity, AR has been intensively researched over several decades but has yet to reach a broad audience.

This thesis presents efforts in bringing Augmented Reality to mobile phones and thus to the general public. Implementing technologies on limited devices, such as mobile phones, poses a number of challenges that differ from traditional research directions. These include: limited computational resources with little or no possibility to upgrade or add hardware, limited input and output capabilities for interactive 3D graphics. The research presented in this thesis addresses these challenges and makes contributions in the following areas:

Mobile Phone Computer Vision-Based Tracking

The first contribution of thesis has been to migrate computer vision algorithms for tracking the mobile phone camera in a real world reference frame - a key enabling technology for AR. To tackle performance issues, low-level optimized code, using fixed-point algorithms, has been developed.

Mobile Phone 3D Interaction Techniques

Another contribution of this thesis has been to research interaction techniques for manipulating virtual content. This is in part realized by exploiting camera tracking for position-controlled interaction where motion of the device is used as input. Gesture input, made possible by a separate front camera, is another approach that is investigated. The obtained results are not unique to AR and could also be applicable to general mobile 3D graphics.

Novel Single User AR Applications

With short range communication technologies, mobile phones can exchange data not only with other phones but also with an intelligent environment. Data can be obtained for tracking or visualization; displays can be used to render graphics with the tracked mobile phone acting as an interaction device. Work is presented where a mobile phone harvests a sensor-network to use AR to visualize live data in context.

Novel Collaboration AR Applications

One of the most promising areas for mobile phone based AR is enhancing face-to-face computer supported cooperative work. This is because the AR display permits non-verbal cues to be used to a larger extent. In this thesis, face-to-face collaboration has been researched to examine whether AR increases awareness of collaboration partners even on small devices such as mobile phones. User feedback indicates that this is the case, confirming the hypothesis that mobile phones are increasingly able to deliver an AR experience to a large audience.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York, USA: ACM, 2007
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1145
Mobile Phone, Augmented Reality, HCI, Ubiquitous Computing, 3D Interaction, Computer Vision
National Category
Computer Vision and Robotics (Autonomous Systems)
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-10204 (URN)978-91-85895-43-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2007-12-14, K2, Kåkenhus, Campus Norrköping, Linköpings universitet, Norrköping, 13:15 (English)
On the day of the defence date the status on articles III and VIII was: Accepted.Available from: 2007-11-20 Created: 2007-11-20 Last updated: 2015-09-22

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