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Differences in Situational Awareness and How to Manage Them in Development of Complex Systems
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Situationsmedvetenhet (Eng. Situational Awareness), (SA), handlar om att ha koll på läget och vara medveten om vad som händer. Redan då ett komplext system utvecklas får vi en möjlighet att påverka vilken SA en framtida användare av systemet kan komma att få. Det gäller att ta tillvara på detta tillfälle! Ibland uppträder skillnader i SA, beroende på en rad olika orsaker. Denna avhandling handlar om SA och hur man kan använda de skillnaderna vid utveckling av komplexa system. Detta är relevant vid utveckling av en rad olika typer av komplexa system, även om de flesta exempel i denna avhandling kommer från flygdomänen.

Avhandlingen innehåller beskrivningar hämtade från litteratur inom området och förslag på utveckling av SA-teori utifrån fokus på just skillnader. Skillnaden mellan vad du behöver vara medveten om och vad du verkligen är medveten om föreslås ge en indikation om individens SA. Vidare föreslås skillnaden mellan vad du är medveten om och vad du tror dig vara medveten om också ge en indikation om individens SA. SA kan skattas för en grupp av människor som arbetar tillsammans, genom variationerna i hur samstämmiga deras uppfattningar är.

Termen situationshantering (Eng. Situation Management), (SM), föreslås med en vidare mening än SA, inkluderande SA, men också varje del av perceptionscykeln, hantering av mentala resurser och hantering av situationen genom extern påverkan. SM är en väl lämpad term vid utveckling av komplexa system då fokus här är på situationen och hur den kan hanteras, snarare än fokus på vad en individ eller en grupp uppfattar.

Att skatta skillnader i SA och att kunna särskilja olika typer av skillnader är viktiga förutsättningar för att kunna hantera skillnader i SA vid utveckling av komplexa system på ett bra sätt. I avhandlingen gås flera sätt att skatta sådana skillnader igenom och speciellt tas för- och nackdelar med ögonrörelsemätning upp. Med referens till litteraturen och till de bilagda artiklarna beskrivs skillnader i SA beroende på a) designalternativ, b) roller i processen från utveckling till användning c) kontext och d) analysnivå. Skillnaderna i SA föreslås ses som både kvantitativa (dvs. hög eller låg SA) och kvalitativa (tex. olika aspekter av en situation).

Ansatser såsom SM, realtidsvärdering, mätning och analys av SA på flera nivåer samtidigt samt simulatorbaserad design föreslås för att hantera skillnader i SA vid utveckling av komplexa system.

Abstract [en]

What’s up, Doc? Situational awareness (SA) is about being aware of what is going on. Already when a complex system is developed there is an opportunity to help a future user of the system to form a better SA. Let us make the best out of this opportunity! When assessing SA, differences in SA will sometimes appear. This dissertation is about SA, and how to manage differences in SA in development of complex systems. This topic is highly valid for development of a variety of complex systems, although most examples in this dissertation are from the aviation domain.

Framed by state of the art literature, suggestions are made on theoretical improvements of SA theory, with a focus on differences. The difference between what you are required to be aware of and what you are aware of is suggested as a SA-indicator. Also, the difference between what you are aware of and what you think you are aware of is suggested as another SA-indicator. Further, differences within a team such as variations in degree of agreement could be used for team SA assessment.

Also, the term situation management (SM) is suggested, with a proposed wider meaning than SA, including SA and every part of the perception action cycle, the management of mental resources, and external means of managing the situation. SM is a suitable term when developing complex systems due to the focus on the situation and how that could be managed, instead of only focusing on what is perceived by an individual or team.

Assessing differences in SA and to differentiate between various types of differences are recognised as important prerequisites to effectively manage differences in SA in development of complex systems. Several assessment techniques are reviewed and especially advantages and disadvantages of the use of eye movements for SA assessment are described. With reference to the literature as well as to the appended papers differences in SA due to a) design alternatives, b) roles in the design-use process, c) context, and d) level of analysis, are described. Differences in SA are suggested to be regarded as both quantitative (i.e. high or low SA) and qualitative (e.g. various aspects of a situation are regarded).

Approaches such as, SM, on-line evaluation of SA, simulator based design, as well as measuring and analysing SA on multiple levels simultaneously, are suggested as means to manage differences in SA in the development of complex systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2007.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1132
Keyword [en]
Situational Awareness, Complex Systems, Human Factors, Development
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-10205ISBN: 978-91-85895-87-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-10205DiVA: diva2:16974
Public defence
2007-12-07, Case (ACAS), A, Campus Valla, Linköpings Universitet, Linköping, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2007-11-09 Created: 2007-11-09 Last updated: 2009-05-13Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Improvement of tactical situation awareness with colour-coded horizontal-situation displays in combat aircraft
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improvement of tactical situation awareness with colour-coded horizontal-situation displays in combat aircraft
Show others...
1999 (English)In: Displays (Guildford), ISSN 0141-9382, E-ISSN 1872-7387, Vol. 20, no 4, 171-184 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the multi-role combat aircraft Gripen, the monochrome head-down displays in the cockpit are to be upgraded in colour. In the present study, the effects of colour-coded displays on visual search and situation awareness (SA) were studied in a real-time simulation of an air-to-air mission with test pilots as subjects. Gripen's monochrome colour scheme was compared to two chromatic (dichrome, polychrome) colour schemes. A 3×2×2 factorial within subjects design was used; the three colour schemes each with two different background conditions (simple and complex) and two different symbol configurations. The pilot had two tasks during the simulation: (1) to track a manoeuvring aircraft within specified limits by using the head-up display (HUD), and (2) to detect the appearance of a priority target on the head-down horizontal-situation display (HSD). Deviations in flight path angle and reaction times for target detection were recorded. After the test runs, the pilot answered questions and ranked the colour schemes in different respects. The pilot also rated them for SA using a subjective rating technique on cognitive compatibility (CC-SART). The results show that colour is advantageous in comparison to the monochrome display: The ranks on situation awareness and preference ratings were higher for the chromatic schemes, and with the complex background, the reaction times were significantly lower for the polychrome colour code. In summary, the results indicate that colour can improve tactical SA in combat aircraft.

Keyword
Human factors, Aviation, Moving map cockpit displays, Horizontal-situation displays, Electronic maps, Colour coding
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12751 (URN)10.1016/S0141-9382(99)00022-0 (DOI)
Available from: 2007-11-09 Created: 2007-11-09 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
2. Pilots’ understanding of situational awareness
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pilots’ understanding of situational awareness
2000 (English)In: Proceedings of the 10th European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics, 2000, 172-181 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12752 (URN)
Conference
10th European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics, Linköping, Sweden, 21-23 August 2000
Available from: 2007-11-09 Created: 2007-11-09 Last updated: 2015-03-02Bibliographically approved
3. Mode monitoring and call-outs: An eye-tracking study of 2-crew automated flight deck operations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mode monitoring and call-outs: An eye-tracking study of 2-crew automated flight deck operations
2006 (English)In: The International journal of aviation psychology, ISSN 1050-8414, E-ISSN 1532-7108, Vol. 16, no 3, 263-275 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Mode awareness has been suggested as a critical factor in safe operations of automated aircraft. This study investigated mode awareness by measuring eye point of gaze of both pilots during simulated commercial flights, while recording call-outs and tracking aircraft performance. The results of this study show that the compliance to manufacturer or air carrier procedures regarding mode monitoring and call-outs was very low. However, this did not seem to have a negative effect on the flight path or safety during our observations. Crews exhibited a proliferation of strategies to keep track of status and behavior of the automation, often with little reliance on the flight mode annunciations of the primary flight display. The data confirm the limitations of current flight mode annunciator designs, and suggest that mode awareness is a more complex phenomenon than what can be captured by measuring eye point of gaze and communication alone.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2006
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12753 (URN)10.1207/s15327108ijap1603_2 (DOI)
Available from: 2007-11-09 Created: 2007-11-09 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
4. Effect of task complexity and decision maker separation on shared situational awareness in command and control in network centric warfare
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of task complexity and decision maker separation on shared situational awareness in command and control in network centric warfare
2007 (English)In: Military Psychology, ISSN 0899-5605, E-ISSN 1532-7876Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12754 (URN)
Available from: 2007-11-09 Created: 2007-11-09 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
5. Individual differences in visual behaviour in simulated flight
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Individual differences in visual behaviour in simulated flight
2002 (English)In: Proceedings of IS &T/SPIE's 14th Annual Symposium: Vol. 4662. Human Vision and Electronic Imaging VII, 2002, 494-502 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12755 (URN)
Available from: 2007-11-09 Created: 2007-11-09 Last updated: 2009-02-12Bibliographically approved
6. Business process reengineering in the automotive area by simulator-based design
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Business process reengineering in the automotive area by simulator-based design
2007 (English)In: Simulation and Modeling: Current Technologies and Applications / [ed] Asim Abdel Rahman El Sheikh, Abid Al Ajeeli, Evon M. O. Abu-Taieh, Hershey, PA, USA: IGI-Global Inc. , 2007, 1, 337-358 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The science of simulation and modeling (SM) strives to showcase the highest possible level of reality in order to determine the conditions necessary for optimal performance. SM is a multifaceted and complex field due to the numerous applications involved, particularly since SM applications range from nuclear reaction to supermarket queuing. Simulation and Modeling: Current Technologies and Applications includes examinations of current issues related to simulation such as: Web-based simulation, virtual reality, augmented reality, and artificial intelligence. This book combines different methods, views, theories, and applications of simulations into one volume, and offers insight into the computer science aspect of simulation and modeling while integrating the business practices of SM.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hershey, PA, USA: IGI-Global Inc., 2007 Edition: 1
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12756 (URN)978-15-9904-198-8 (ISBN)159-90-4198-7 (ISBN)
Available from: 2007-11-09 Created: 2007-11-09 Last updated: 2013-06-28Bibliographically approved

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Alfredson, Jens

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