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Active Matrix Displays Based on All-Organic Electrochemical Smart Pixels Printed on Paper
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
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2002 (English)In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 14, no 20, 1460-1464 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An organic electronic paper display technology (see Figure and also inside front cover) is presented. The electrochromic display cell together with the addressing electrochemical transistor form simple smart pixels that are included in matrix displays, which are achieved on coated cellulose-based paper using printing techniques. The ion-electronic technology presented offers an opportunity to extend existing use of ordinary paper.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 2002. Vol. 14, no 20, 1460-1464 p.
Keyword [en]
Displays, active matrix, Electronic paper, Poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), Polystyrene sulfonate (PSS)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12763DOI: 10.1002/1521-4095(20021016)14:20<1460::AID-ADMA1460>3.0.CO;2-SISI: 000179034200004OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-12763DiVA: diva2:17007
Available from: 2008-11-12 Created: 2008-11-12 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Charge Transport Modulation and Optical Absorption Switching in Organic Electronic Devices
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Charge Transport Modulation and Optical Absorption Switching in Organic Electronic Devices
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Organic electronics has evolved into a well-established research field thanks to major progresses in material sciences during recent decades. More attention was paid to this research field when “the discovery and development of conductive polymers” was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2000. Electronic devices that rely on tailor-made material functionalities, the ability of solution processing and low-cost manufacturing on flexible substrates by traditional printing techniques are among the key features in organic electronics. The common theme while exploring organic electronics, and the focus of this thesis, is that (semi-)conducting polymers serve as active materials to define the principle of operation in devices.

This thesis reviews two kinds of organic electronic devices. The first part describes electrochemical devices based on conducting polymers. Active matrix addressed displays that are printed on flexible substrates have been obtained by arranging electrochemical smart pixels, based on the combination of electrochemical transistors and electrochromic display cells, into cross-point matrices. The resulting polymer-based active-matrix displays are operated at low voltages and the same active material is used in the electrochemical transistors as well as in the electrochromic display cells, simply by employing the opto-electronic properties of the material. In addition to this first part, a switchable optical polarizer based on electrochromism in a stretch-aligned conducting polymer is described. The second part reports switchable charge traps in polymer diodes. Here, a device based on a solid-state blend of a conjugated polymer and a photochromic molecule has been demonstrated. The solid state blend, sandwiched between two electrodes, provide a polymer diode that allows reversible current modulation between two different charge transport mechanisms via externally triggered switching of the charge trap density.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, 2007
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1147
Keyword
electrochromic, photochromic, PEDOT:PSS, active matrix display, switchable charge traps, printed electronics, switchable polarizer
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-10271 (URN)978-91-85895-35-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2007-12-14, K3, Kåkenhus, LiU Norrköping, Norrköping, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2007-11-21 Created: 2007-11-21 Last updated: 2017-02-03
2. An Organic Electrochemical Transistor for Printed Sensors and Logic
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Organic Electrochemical Transistor for Printed Sensors and Logic
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Conducting polymers entered the research field in late 70´s and efforts aimed at achieving printed electronics started a decade later. This thesis treats printable organic electrochemical transistors (OECT). Some conjugated polymers can be switched between a high conducting and a low conducting state in an electrochemical cell. In this thesis, the work carried out using poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) as the active material in an electrochemical transistor is reported. The electrochemical transistors, presented, can be designed into a bi-stable and dynamic mode of operation. These transistors operates at voltages below 2V and current on/off ratios are typically 5000, but 105 have been reached. The transistor device can be built up from all-organic materials using common printing techniques such as with screen-printing. The bi-stable transistor can be combined with an electrochromic (EC) display cell to form a smart pixel circuit. Combining several of these smart pixels yield an actively addressed cross-point matrix display. From this an all-organic active matrix display printable on paper has been achieved. The OECT, combined with a resistor network was successfully used in inverter and logic circuits.

One important feature of these organic electrochemical devices is that both ions and electrons are used as the charge (signal) carriers. This is of particular interest and importance for chemical sensors. By combining a proton-conducting electrolyte (Nafion®) that changes its conductivity upon exposure to humidity, a simple OECT humidity sensor was achieved. This proves the use of this OECT as the ion-to-electron transducer.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, 2005
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 921
Keyword
printable organic electrochemical transistors (OECT), polymers, charge (signal) carriers, proton-conducting electrolyte (Nafion)
National Category
Organic Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-5024 (URN)91-85297-26-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2005-02-17, K3, Kåkenhus, Campus Norrköping, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2005-03-10 Created: 2005-03-10 Last updated: 2017-02-03
3. Electrochromic Polymer Devices: Active-Matrix Displays and Switchable Polarizers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrochromic Polymer Devices: Active-Matrix Displays and Switchable Polarizers
2006 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Major efforts have been spent during recent years in worldwide attempts to achieve an electronic paper technology; the common name for novel flexible displays utilizing substrates such as paper, plastics or thin metal sheets. Various kinds of technology are available that potentially will be used for an electronic paper, which differs from each other mainly with respect to the choice of active materials, substrates and manufacturing techniques. There are many applications for electronic paper technology, ranging from high-resolution displays used in electronic books to updateable large-area billboards. The latter suggests a novel electronic display function that could extend the utilization of cellulose-based paper, which is one of the most common materials ever produced by mankind, by using the paper as a thin and flexible carrier. The requirement for fast update speed in such large area applications would probably be a bit more relaxed compared to traditional display technologies, while low-power consumption and bi-stability are among the factors that should be further emphasized, together with the utilization of well-established printing techniques to enable low-cost manufacturing of the displays. The choice of active materials is therefore crucial in order to reach these objectives in reality and this paves the way for printable conjugated polymers with electrochromic properties. Chemical synthesis of these materials during the last decades has resulted in a vast variety of electrochromic polymers with custom-tailored functionality covering a broad range of optical absorption and electrical conductivities.

This thesis review the studies done on the electrochemical switching of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). For this material both the electrical conductivity and the optical absorption is controlled by the oxidation state. Active matrix addressed displays that are printed on flexible substrates have been obtained by arranging electrochemical smart pixels, based on the combination of electrochemical transistors and electrochromic display cells, into cross-point matrices. The resulting polymer-based active-matrix displays are operated at low voltages and the same active material can be used in electrochemical transistors and conducting lines and in electrochromic display cells employing the electronic and the opto-electonic properties of the material, respectively. In addition to this, a switchable optical polarizer is briefly discussed. This is a device utilizing electrochromism of stretch-aligned polyaniline (PANI). The combination of two identical devices in a vertical architecture, orthogonally oriented with respect to each other, results in a filter in which the orientation of the polarized optical absorption is governed by the voltage polarity applied to the device.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, 2006. 53 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1237
Keyword
conjugated polymer, PEDOT:PSS, active-matrix, displays, polarizer, polyaniline
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-6102 (URN)91-85497-35-5 (ISBN)
Presentation
2006-03-02, TP2, Täppan, LIU Norrköping - Linköping University, Norrköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
Report code: LiU-TEK-LIC- 2006:18Available from: 2006-03-22 Created: 2006-03-22 Last updated: 2017-02-03

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Andersson, PeterNilsson, DavidSvensson, Per-OlofChen, MiaoxiangKugler, ThomasBerggren, Magnus

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