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Charge Transport Modulation and Optical Absorption Switching in Organic Electronic Devices
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Organic electronics has evolved into a well-established research field thanks to major progresses in material sciences during recent decades. More attention was paid to this research field when “the discovery and development of conductive polymers” was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2000. Electronic devices that rely on tailor-made material functionalities, the ability of solution processing and low-cost manufacturing on flexible substrates by traditional printing techniques are among the key features in organic electronics. The common theme while exploring organic electronics, and the focus of this thesis, is that (semi-)conducting polymers serve as active materials to define the principle of operation in devices.

This thesis reviews two kinds of organic electronic devices. The first part describes electrochemical devices based on conducting polymers. Active matrix addressed displays that are printed on flexible substrates have been obtained by arranging electrochemical smart pixels, based on the combination of electrochemical transistors and electrochromic display cells, into cross-point matrices. The resulting polymer-based active-matrix displays are operated at low voltages and the same active material is used in the electrochemical transistors as well as in the electrochromic display cells, simply by employing the opto-electronic properties of the material. In addition to this first part, a switchable optical polarizer based on electrochromism in a stretch-aligned conducting polymer is described. The second part reports switchable charge traps in polymer diodes. Here, a device based on a solid-state blend of a conjugated polymer and a photochromic molecule has been demonstrated. The solid state blend, sandwiched between two electrodes, provide a polymer diode that allows reversible current modulation between two different charge transport mechanisms via externally triggered switching of the charge trap density.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap , 2007.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1147
Keyword [en]
electrochromic, photochromic, PEDOT:PSS, active matrix display, switchable charge traps, printed electronics, switchable polarizer
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-10271ISBN: 978-91-85895-35-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-10271DiVA: diva2:17013
Public defence
2007-12-14, K3, Kåkenhus, LiU Norrköping, Norrköping, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2007-11-21 Created: 2007-11-21 Last updated: 2017-02-03
List of papers
1. Active Matrix Displays Based on All-Organic Electrochemical Smart Pixels Printed on Paper
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Active Matrix Displays Based on All-Organic Electrochemical Smart Pixels Printed on Paper
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2002 (English)In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 14, no 20, 1460-1464 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An organic electronic paper display technology (see Figure and also inside front cover) is presented. The electrochromic display cell together with the addressing electrochemical transistor form simple smart pixels that are included in matrix displays, which are achieved on coated cellulose-based paper using printing techniques. The ion-electronic technology presented offers an opportunity to extend existing use of ordinary paper.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 2002
Keyword
Displays, active matrix, Electronic paper, Poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), Polystyrene sulfonate (PSS)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12763 (URN)10.1002/1521-4095(20021016)14:20<1460::AID-ADMA1460>3.0.CO;2-S (DOI)000179034200004 ()
Available from: 2008-11-12 Created: 2008-11-12 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
2. Organic Electrochemical Smart Pixels
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Organic Electrochemical Smart Pixels
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2003 (English)In: Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, 2003, Vol. 736, D6.6- p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12764 (URN)
Available from: 2008-11-12 Created: 2008-11-12 Last updated: 2017-02-03
3. Switchable Optical Polarizer Based on Electrochromism in Stretch-Aligned Polyaniline
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Switchable Optical Polarizer Based on Electrochromism in Stretch-Aligned Polyaniline
2003 (English)In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 83, no 7, 1307-1309 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We report on the polarizing electrochromic (EC) effect of a conjugated polymer. This has been achieved in a planar flexible electrochemical device cell comprised of a patterned stretch-aligned thin film of polyaniline and an electrolyte, all made on a polyethylene foil substrate. The resulting device exhibits polarized absorption characteristics, of a dichroic ratio of 4, that can be controlled by the voltage applied. Also, thin flexible EC polarizers have been realized by combining two stretch-aligned polyaniline films with orthogonal stretching direction. In the resulting EC polarizer the orientation of the polarized absorption can be switched between two orthogonal directions, depending on the voltage applied.

Keyword
optical polymers, electrochromism, polymer films, optical polarisers
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13799 (URN)10.1063/1.1602556 (DOI)
Available from: 2008-11-12 Created: 2008-11-12 Last updated: 2017-12-13
4. Printable All-Organic Electrochromic Active-Matrix Displays
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Printable All-Organic Electrochromic Active-Matrix Displays
2007 (English)In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 17, no 16, 3074-3082 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

All-organic active matrix addressed displays based on electrochemical smart pixels made on flexible substrates are reported. Each individual smart pixel device combines an electrochemical transistor with an electrochromic display cell, thus resulting in a low-voltage operating and robust display technology. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) doped with poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS) served as the active material in the electrochemical smart pixels, as well as the conducting lines, of the monolithically integrated active-matrix display. Different active-matrix display addressing schemes have been investigated and a matrix display fill factor of 65 % was reached. This is achieved by combining a three-terminal electrochemical transistor with an electrochromic display cell architecture, in which an additional layer of PEDOT:PSS was placed on top of the display cell counter electrode. In addition, we have evaluated different kinds of electrochromic polymer materials aiming at reaching a high color switch contrast. This work has been carried out in the light of achieving a robust display technology that is easily manufactured using a standard label printing press, which forced us to use the fewest different materials as well as avoiding exotic and complex device architectures. Together, this yields a manufacturing process of only five discrete patterning steps, which in turn promise for that the active matrix addressed displays can be manufactured on paper or plastic substrates in a roll-to-roll production procedure.

Keyword
Displays, Electrochromic materials, Electronic paper
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12766 (URN)10.1002/adfm.200601241 (DOI)
Available from: 2008-11-12 Created: 2008-11-12 Last updated: 2017-12-14
5. Switchable Charge Traps in Polymer Diodes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Switchable Charge Traps in Polymer Diodes
2005 (English)In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 17, no 14, 1798-1803 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Keyword
Charge trapping, Optical switches, Photoisomerization, Poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12767 (URN)10.1002/adma.200400842 (DOI)
Available from: 2008-11-12 Created: 2008-11-12 Last updated: 2017-12-14
6. Diodes Based on Blends of Molecular Switches and Conjugated Polymers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Diodes Based on Blends of Molecular Switches and Conjugated Polymers
2005 (English)In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, ISSN 0379-6779, Vol. 150, no 3, 217-221 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Here we report polymer diodes based on a conjugated polymer host and a dispersed molecular switch. In this case, the molecular switch is a photochromic (PC) molecule that can be reversibly switched between low and high energy gap states, triggered by exposure to ultra-violet and visible light, respectively. While dispersed inside the conjugated polymer bulk and switched to its low energy gap state, the PC molecules act as traps for holes. Solid-state blends of this PC material and conjugated polymers have been demonstrated in diodes. The state of the PC molecule controls the current density versus voltage (JV) characteristics of the resulting diode. Both poly(2-methoxy-5(2′-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene) (MEH-PPV) and poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) host materials have been studied. The two conjugated polymers resulted in differing JV switching characteristics. A more pronounced JV switch is observed with MEH-PPV than with P3HT. We postulate that the PC material, while switched to its low energy gap state, act as traps in both the conjugated polymers but at different trap depth energies.

Keyword
Polymer diodes, Molecular switch, Photochromic molecule, Charge trap depth, JV modulation
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12768 (URN)10.1016/j.synthmet.2004.06.035 (DOI)
Available from: 2008-11-12 Created: 2008-11-12 Last updated: 2017-12-14

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Andersson, Peter

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