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Ultra-wideband Antenna and Radio Front-end Systems
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The number of wireless communication applications increase steadily, leading to the competition for currently allocated frequency bands. Pressure on authorities around the world to permit communications in higher and wider frequency ranges to achieve higher wireless capacity than those existed in the past has resulted in several new specifications. The federal communication commission (FCC) in USA has unleashed the band 3.1-10.6 GHz for ultra-wideband radio (UWB) communications. The release has triggered a worldwide interest for UWB. Other regulatory instances throughout the world have issued use of UWB techniques as well. Capacity issues in form of data rate and latency have always been a bottleneck for broadened wireless-communication usages. New communication systems like UWB require larger bandwidth than what is normally utilized with traditional antenna techniques. The interest for compact consumer electronics is growing in the meantime, creating a demand on efficient and low profile antennas which can be integrated on a printed circuit board. In this thesis, some methods to extend the bandwidth and other antenna parameters associated with wideband usages are studied. Furthermore, methods on how to enhance the performance when one antenna-element is not enough are studied as well.

The principle of antenna parallelism is demonstrated using both microstrip patch antennas and inverted-F antennas. Several techniques to combine the antennas in parallel have been evaluated. Firstly, a solution using power-splitters to form sub-arrays that covers one 500-MHz multi-band orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) UWB is shown in Paper I. It is then proposed that the sub-bands are selected with a switching network. A more convenient method is to use the later developed frequency multiplexing technique as described in Paper V and VIII. Using the frequency multiplexing technique, selective connection of any number of antennas to a common junction is possible. The characteristic impedance is chosen freely, typically using a 50-Ω feed-line. Secondly, in Paper VIII a frequency-triplexed inverted-F antenna system is investigated to cover the Mode 1 multi-band UWB bandwidth 3.1-4.8 GHz. The antenna system is composed of three inverted-F antennas and a frequency triplexer including three 5th order bandpass filters. In Paper VI a printed circuit board integrated-triplexer for multi-band UWB radio is presented. The triplexer utilizes a microstrip network and three combined broadside- and edge-coupled filters. The triplexer is fully integrated in a four metal-layer printed circuit board with the minimum requirement on process tolerances. Furthermore, the system is built completely with distributed microstrips, i.e., no discrete components. Using the proposed solution an equal performance between the sub-bands is obtained. Finally suitable monopoles and dipoles are discussed and evaluated for UWB. In Paper X circular monopole and dipole antennas for UWB utilizing the flex-rigid concept are proposed. The flex-rigid concept combines flexible polyimide materials with the regular printed circuit board material. The antennas are placed entirely on the flexible part while the antenna ground plane and the dipole antenna balun are placed in the rigid part.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap , 2008. , 88 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1146
Keyword [en]
Wireless communication, ultra-wideband, radio communication, UWB bandwidth, antenna parallelism
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-10338ISBN: 978-91-85895-36-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-10338DiVA: diva2:17081
Public defence
2008-02-29, K2, Kåkenhus, Campus Norrköping, Linköpings universitet, Norrköping, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Available from: 2008-01-07 Created: 2008-01-07 Last updated: 2009-05-04
List of papers
1. Wideband patch antenna array for multi-band UWB
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wideband patch antenna array for multi-band UWB
2004 (English)In: Proc. IEEE 11th Symp. on Communications and Vehicular Tech., Ghent, Belgium, November, 2004Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

As wireless communication applications require more and more bandwidth, the demand for wideband antennas increases as well. For instance, ultra wideband radio (UWB) will utilize the frequency-band of 3.1-10.6 GHz. Microstrip patch antennas have advantages of low cost and compatibility to the printed circuit board (PCB) technology, having the possibility to integrate the antenna with the circuit board. Since patch antennas have ground planes, components can be placed on the other side of the PCB, this allows a compact module design. However, the microstrip patch antenna has drawback of small bandwidth. Bandwidth is limited since the substrate height is limited. To overcome these drawbacks, we have studied a method to use a patch array with varied patch lengths on a low loss PCB. Patches electrically far away from each other will give independent resonances. By choosing several patch lengths so that the standing wave ratio (SWR) plots of the antennas overlap, they can be combined into one wideband with a power-divider. Several arrays can be combined to a multi-band antenna system using switches. A patch antenna array for the multiband UWB in the frequency band of 3.1-10.6 GHz is presented in this paper.

Keyword
Ultra wideband, UWB, patch antenna, wireless, antenna array
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12793 (URN)
Conference
IEEE 11th Symp. on Communications and Vehicular Tech., Ghent, Belgium, November
Available from: 2008-01-07 Created: 2008-01-07 Last updated: 2013-11-07
2. An integrated spiral antenna system for UWB
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An integrated spiral antenna system for UWB
2005 (English)In: Proc. IEEE 35th European Microwave Conference, 4-6 October, Paris, France, 2005, 2007-2010 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

As wireless communication applications require more and more bandwidth, the demand for wideband antennas increases as well. For instance, the ultra wideband radio (UWB) utilizes the frequency band of 3.1-10.6 GHz. The spiral antenna has a higher spectral efficiency than other planar antennas like the patch antenna. Theoretically, any type of antennas can be combined into different kind of arrays, in order to improve performance beyond that from one single antenna. The electrically coupled parallelism is one solution to extend bandwidth. By combining two spiral antennas with different radius of the radiation zone, the standing wave ratio (SWR) can be kept low for a large bandwidth, resulting in an improved spiral antenna performance for UWB. Furthermore, a study of how spiral dimensions impact on gain and SWR was conducted and presented.

Keyword
uwb, antenna, ultra wideband radio, spiral antenna
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12794 (URN)10.1109/EUMC.2005.1610362 (DOI)
Available from: 2008-01-07 Created: 2008-01-07 Last updated: 2013-11-07
3. Monofilar spiral antennas for UWB with and without air core
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Monofilar spiral antennas for UWB with and without air core
2007 (English)In: ISAST Transactions on Electronics and Signal Processing, ISSN 1797-2329, Vol. 2, no 1, 64-70 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

One of the trends in wireless communicationis that systems require more and more frequency spectrum.Consequently, the demand for wideband antennas increasesas well. For instance, the ultra wideband radio (UWB)utilizes the frequency band of 3.1-10.6 GHz. Such abandwidth is more than what is normally utilized with asingle low-profile antenna. Low profile antennas arepopular because they are integratable on a printed circuitboard. However, the fractional bandwidth is usually anissue for low profile antennas because of the limitedsubstrate height. The monofilar spiral antenna on the otherhand has higher fractional bandwidth, and at GHzfrequencies the physical dimensions of the spiral isreasonable. Furthermore, a study of how spiral dimensionsimpact on antenna gain and standing wave ratio (SWR) wasconducted and presented. Simulated results were comparedwith measurements.

National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12795 (URN)
Available from: 2008-01-07 Created: 2008-01-07 Last updated: 2013-11-07
4. Air core patch antennas suitable for multi-band UWB
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Air core patch antennas suitable for multi-band UWB
2005 (English)In: Proc. GigaHertz 2005, Uppsala, Sweden, 2005, 218-221 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

As wireless communication applications grow rapidly, the demand for modular solutions with high performance and low profile antennas increases. For instance, the ultra wideband radio (UWB) utilizes the frequency band of 3.1-10.6 GHz. Integrateable antennas should be of planar structures. A Planar structure limits design options, regarding various performance aspects. For instance, the spectral efficiency, i.e., the bandwidth (BW) relative to the center frequency (CF) is limited. The antenna efficiency, i.e., gain relative to directivity is also limited. The antenna efficiency is important for receiver sensitivity, which is important in UWB systems. The efficiency is dependant of the antenna structure and material used. The Rogers 4350B material is suitable for high frequency modules since it has a low loss tangent that is stable over a wide frequency range, but the substrate height is limited. In this study a printed circuit board (PCB) with an air core was introduced to increase the antenna efficiency. The module is processed as two separate double-layer PCBs. This technique can be implemented to increase the performance in a narrowband as well as in a wideband antenna system. An advantage is that components can be placed on the other side of the ground plane without interference since the ground plane shields components from antenna radiation. A study of how the antenna bandwidth and efficiency are improved with the proposed structure at 3.5 and 10 GHz was conducted and presented.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12796 (URN)
Available from: 2008-01-07 Created: 2008-01-07 Last updated: 2013-11-07
5. Frequency-multiplexed Inverted-F Antennas for Multi-band UWB
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Frequency-multiplexed Inverted-F Antennas for Multi-band UWB
2006 (English)In: IEEE Annual Wireless and Microwave Technology Conference WAMICON '06, 2006, FF-2-1--FF-2-3 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

An invented frequency multiplexing technique is used to combine inverted-F antennas for multi-band UWB. The frequency multiplexing technique allows a number of independent antennas to be used in parallel. In this paper a radio front-end system consisting of three antennas and a frequency multiplexing network is built. Using one antenna for each sub-band within a band-group provides equal performance for the entire band. Both the antennas and the frequency multiplexing network can be integrated on a printed circuit board. The antennas were simulated and measured. S-parameters of the antennas were extracted and used for co-simulation with the frequency multiplexing network. The antenna system fulfills the requirement for Mode 1 UWB.

Keyword
UWB antenna, Frequency multiplexing, Inverted-F antenna
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12797 (URN)10.1109/WAMICON.2006.351944 (DOI)
Available from: 2008-01-07 Created: 2008-01-07 Last updated: 2009-05-22
6. All-Microstrip Design of Three Multiplexed Antennas and LNA for UWB Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>All-Microstrip Design of Three Multiplexed Antennas and LNA for UWB Systems
2006 (English)In: Asia-Pacific Microwave Conf., December 2006, 2006, 1106-1109 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

An ultra-wideband (UWB) 3.1-4.8 GHz radio front-end consisting of three frequency multiplexed antennas and a low-noise amplifier (LNA) is presented in this paper. Using one antenna for each sub-band and an LNA designed for maximum-flat power gain provides equal performance within the entire frequency band. Frequency multiplexing is used to combine the antennas for multi-band UWB. The LNA is optimized for wideband operation and minimum noise figure. The LNA design employs dual-section input and output matching networks. The antennas, the frequency multiplexing network, the matching networks and the bias circuit of the LNA are all implemented using microstrip lines.

Keyword
antenna arrays, frequency division multiplexing, low noise amplifiers, microstrip antennas, microwave amplifiers, microwave antennas, ultra wideband antennas, wideband amplifiers, LNA, UWB systems, bias circuit, dual-section matching networks, frequency 3.1 GHz to 4.8 GHz, frequency multiplexed antennas, microstrip design, microstrip lines, multiband UWB, ultra-wideband radio front-end
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12798 (URN)10.1109/APMC.2006.4429602 (DOI)978-4-902339-08-6 (ISBN)
Available from: 2008-01-07 Created: 2008-01-07 Last updated: 2015-03-18Bibliographically approved
7. A Frequency Triplexer for Ultra-wideband Systems Utilizing Combined Broadside- and Edge-coupled Filters
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Frequency Triplexer for Ultra-wideband Systems Utilizing Combined Broadside- and Edge-coupled Filters
2008 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging, ISSN 1521-3323, Vol. 31, no 4, 794-801 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A fully integrated triplexer for multiband ultra-wideband radio is presented. The triplexer utilizes a microstrip network and three combined broadside- and edge-coupled filters. It is fully integrated in a printed circuit board with low requirements on the printed circuit board process tolerance. Three flat subbands in the frequency band 3.1-4.8 GHz have been achieved. The group delay variation within each 500-MHz subband was measured to be around 1 ns. A good agreement between simulation and measurement was obtained.

National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12799 (URN)10.1109/TADVP.2008.2004415 (DOI)
Projects
microstrip components, multiplexing equipment , ultra wideband communication
Note
©2009 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or to reuse any copyrighted component of this work in other works must be obtained from the IEEE. Magnus Karlsson, Pär Håkansson and Shaofang Gong, A Frequency Triplexer for Ultra-wideband Systems Utilizing Combined Broadside- and Edge-coupled Filters, 2008, IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging, (31), 4, 794-801. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TADVP.2008.2004415 Available from: 2008-01-07 Created: 2008-01-07 Last updated: 2010-01-18
8. A Frequency-Triplexed Inverted-F Antenna System for Ultra-wide Multi-band Systems 3.1-4.8 GHz
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Frequency-Triplexed Inverted-F Antenna System for Ultra-wide Multi-band Systems 3.1-4.8 GHz
2007 (English)In: ISAST Transactions on Electronics and Signal Processing, ISSN 1797-2329, Vol. 1, no 1, 95-100 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A fully integrated triplex antenna system for multibandUWB 3.1-4.8 GHz is presented. The system utilizes amicrostrip network and three combined broadside- and edgecoupledfilters to connect three inverted-F antennas in parallel.The triplexd antenna system is fully integrated in a printedcircuit board with low requirements on the printed circuit boardprocess tolerance. The group delay variation within the triplexerwas measured to be less than 1 ns. Furthermore, a goodagreement between simulation and measurement results wasobserved.

Keyword
Bandpass filter, Broadside coupled, Edge coupled, Frequency multiplexing, Inverted-F antenna, Triplexer, UWB
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12800 (URN)
Available from: 2008-01-07 Created: 2008-01-07 Last updated: 2009-05-04
9. Microstrip Bias Networks for Ultra-Wideband Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microstrip Bias Networks for Ultra-Wideband Systems
2008 (English)In: ISAST Transactions on Electronics and Signal Processing, ISSN 1797-2329, Vol. 1, no 2, 16-20 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Bias networks with radio frequency (RF) chokes can be implemented using different microstrip elements. They can have different advantages in terms of bandwidth and occupied area. However, sharp discontinuities of the transfer functions have been observed in these types of bias networks. In this paper they are explained by resonances generated within the DC path of the bias network. As the resonance behavior degrades the performance of broadband RF circuits, the robustness of different bias networks against resonance was investigated. Different bias networks were fabricated and measured. Both simulation and experimental results show that broadband microstrip bias networks can be optimized to avoid or reduce the resonance phenomena.

Keyword
Bias networks, microstrip components
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12801 (URN)
Available from: 2008-01-07 Created: 2008-01-07 Last updated: 2015-03-18Bibliographically approved
10. A Frequency-triplexed RF Front-end for Ultra-wideband Systems 3.1-4.8 GHz
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Frequency-triplexed RF Front-end for Ultra-wideband Systems 3.1-4.8 GHz
2008 (English)In: ISAST Transactions on Electronics and Signal Processing, ISSN 1797-2329, Vol. 1, no 2, 83-88 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A multi-band and ultra-wideband (UWB) 3.1-4.8 GHz receiver front-end consisting of a fully integrated filter and triplexer network, and a flat gain low-noise amplifier (LNA) is presented in this paper. The front-end utilizes a microstrip network and three combined broadside- and edge-coupled bandpass filters to connect the three sub-bands. The LNA design employs dual-section input and output microstrip matching networks for wideband operation with a flat power gain and a low noise figure. The system is fully integrated in a four-metal-layer printed circuit board. The measured power gain is 10 dB and the noise figure of the front-end is 6 dB at each center frequency of the three sub-bands. The minimum isolation between the sub-bands is -27 dB and the isolation between the non-neighboring alternate sub-bands is -52 dB. The out-of-band interferer attenuation is below -30 dB.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12802 (URN)
Note
The status of this article was previously Submitted.Available from: 2008-01-07 Created: 2008-01-07 Last updated: 2015-03-18Bibliographically approved
11. Mono- and Di-pole Antennas for UWB Utilizing Flex-rigid Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mono- and Di-pole Antennas for UWB Utilizing Flex-rigid Technology
2007 (English)In: ISAST Transactions on Electronics and Signal Processing, ISSN 1797-2329, Vol. 2, no 1, 59-63 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Fully integrated monopole and dipole antennas forultra-wideband (UWB) radio utilizing flexible and rigid printedcircuit boards are presented in this paper. A circular monopoleantenna for the entire UWB frequency band 3.1-10.6 GHz ispresented. A circular dipole antenna with an integrated balun forthe frequency band 3.1-4.8 GHz is also presented. The balunutilizes broadside-coupled microstrips, integrated in the rigidpart of the printed circuit board. Furthermore, anomnidirectional radiation pattern and high radiation efficiencyare predicted by simulations.

Keyword
Broadside-coupled, circular, dipole antenna, monopole antenna, UWB
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12803 (URN)
Available from: 2008-01-07 Created: 2008-01-07 Last updated: 2009-05-04

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