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A case study of information and communication technology in emergency management training
Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSE - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4735-8697
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2006 (English)In: International Journal of Emergency Management, ISSN 1471-4825, Vol. 3, no 4, 332-347 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper addresses the roles of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in training for effective emergency management and inter-organisational coordination. Collocation can encourage the development of common ground and trust and, in turn, result in greater efficiency and effectiveness. We expect to find communication and artefact use during collocated training that cannot readily transfer to the ICT used to link distributed work settings. This expectation makes the reliance on ICT and distributed work during emergency management operations suspect. To test these claims, we observed a large-scale, real-time exercise designed to facilitate cooperation among electricity and telecommunications companies. The exercise scenario was similar to the January 2005 windstorm that left much of southern Sweden without electricity or telephone service and revealed the need for better cooperation among utility providers. The observations suggest that while collocation is clearly beneficial, a mismatch in ICT use between collocated training and distributed emergency management operations is likely to be detrimental for preparedness.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 3, no 4, 332-347 p.
Keyword [en]
emergency management; training; artefact use; collocated work; distributed work; real-time exercise; inter-organisational coordination; cooperation; information technology; communications; ICT; Sweden; electricity companies; telecommunications companies
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12838DOI: 10.1504/IJEM.2006.011300OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-12838DiVA: diva2:17171
Available from: 2007-12-19 Created: 2007-12-19 Last updated: 2014-12-19
In thesis
1. Towards the mitigation of cultural barriers to communication and cooperation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards the mitigation of cultural barriers to communication and cooperation
2007 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis combines theories from cross-cultural psychology with literature on group faultlines to understand cultural barriers to communication and cooperation experienced in multinational emergency management teams. The aim is to investigate whether the faultline concept is a viable theoretical vocabulary for addressing cultural differences in communication and cooperation (in the domain of emergency management). Culture is defined as a relatively organized system of shared meanings which influences people’s cognition, values, behaviors, and so on. Group faultlines are hypothetical dividing lines that may split a team into homogeneous subgroups based on demographic characteristics. Three papers are included in the thesis, all of which investigate various aspects of group behavior in relation to emergency management. Results suggest that faultlines can be formed not only by demographic characteristics, but also by culturally-driven behavior. The results presented in the papers and in this thesis are meant to supply emergency management personnel with general knowledge of cultural differences and ideas for future ‘cultural awareness’ training. The thesis contributes to the scientific community by taking cross-cultural research into the applied domain so that its findings can be made relevant to people in multinational organizations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling; Linköpings universitet, 2007. 65 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1300
Series
LiU-Tek-Lic-2007:9
Keyword
multinational cooperation, cultural differences, cross-cultural psychology, emergency management, teamwork, microworlds, group faultlines
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-10433 (URN)978-91-85715-75-6 (ISBN)
Presentation
2007-02-23, A:35, A, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2007-12-19 Created: 2007-12-19 Last updated: 2014-12-19
2. Functional Modeling of Constraint Management in Aviation Safety and Command and Control
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Functional Modeling of Constraint Management in Aviation Safety and Command and Control
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis has shown that the concept of constraint management is instrumental in understanding the domains of command and control and aviation safety. Particularly, functional modeling as a means to address constraint management provides a basis for analyzing the performance of socio-technical systems. In addition to the theoretical underpinnings, six studies are presented.

          First, a functional analysis of an exercise conducted by a team of electricity network emergency managers is used to show that a team function taxonomy can be used to analyze the mapping between team tasks and information and communication technology to assess training needs for performance improvement. Second, an analysis of a fire-fighting emergency management simulation is used to show that functional modeling and visualization of constraints can describe behavior vis-à-vis constraints and inform decision support design. Third, analysis of a simulated adversarial command and control task reveals that functional modeling may be used to describe and facilitate constraint management (constraining the adversary and avoiding being constrained by the adversary).

          Studies four and five address the domain of civil aviation safety. The analysis of functional resonance is applied to an incident in study four and an accident in study five, based on investigation reports. These studies extend the functional resonance analysis method and accident model. The sixth study documents the utility of this functional modeling approach for risk assessment by evaluating proposed automation for air traffic control, based on observations, interviews, and experimental data.

          In sum, this thesis adds conceptual tools and modeling methods to the cognitive systems engineering discipline that can be used to tackle problems of training environment design, decision support, incident and accident analysis, and risk assessment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköpings universitet, 2009. 134 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1249
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17639 (URN)978-91-7393-659-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-04-30, Key 1, hus Key, campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-04-06 Created: 2009-04-06 Last updated: 2015-06-04Bibliographically approved

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Woltjer, RogierLindgren, IdaSmith, Kip

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