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Intra‐ and interrater reliability of the establishment of one repetition maximum on squat and seated knee extension
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Orthopaedic Centre, Department of Orthopaedics Linköping.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1929-0605
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3527-5488
2007 (English)In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 21, no 3, 801-807 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of the present study was to develop a systematic procedure for the establishment of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) in order to describe an easily accessible test procedure that is applicable for physical therapists and athletic trainers who manage strength training for healthy individuals and patients. Another purpose was to investigate the intra- and interrater reliability of 1RM of squat on 1 leg and seated knee extension on 1 leg. Estimates of leg strength and ratings of perceived exertion formed the basis of the amount of load selected. The reliability of the procedure was assessed by a test–retest design. One RM was established for 16 and 27 healthy individuals, for squat and knee extension, respectively. The intrarater reliability of 1RM of squat on 1 leg was questionable (intraclass correlation [ICC] 0.64, measurement error 13.1 kg). The interrater reliability of 1RM of squat on 1 leg was clinically acceptable (ICC 0.94, measurement error 5.2 kg). The intrarater and interrater reliability of 1RM of seated knee extension on 1 leg was clinically acceptable (ICC 0.90, measurement error 5.1 kg and ICC 0.96, measurement error 3.2 kg, respectively). In conclusion, both exercises can be used to determine the load in exercise programs. In addition, seated knee extension may be used to evaluate strength. In contrast, squat on 1 leg is more uncertain to use at assessments between different days, which may be due to the complexity of this exercise. The test, performed in the described manner, is suitable for physical therapists, athletic trainers, and strength and conditioning coaches in clinical practice working with strength training and rehabilitation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2007. Vol. 21, no 3, 801-807 p.
Keyword [en]
exercise, lower extremity, rehabilitation
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12864PubMedID: 17685713OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-12864DiVA: diva2:17241
Available from: 2008-01-28 Created: 2008-01-28 Last updated: 2015-12-18Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Dynamic knee stability after anterior cruciate ligament injury: Emphasis on rehabilitation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dynamic knee stability after anterior cruciate ligament injury: Emphasis on rehabilitation
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Anterior cruciate ligament injury leads to increased sagittal tibial translation, and perceptions of instability and low confidence in the knee joint are common. Many patients have remaining problems despite treatment and are forced to lower their activity level and prematurely end their career in sports. The effect of ACL reconstruction and/or rehabilitation on dynamic knee stability is not completely understood. The overall aim of this thesis was to study the dynamic knee stability during and after rehabilitation in individuals with ACL injury. More specific aims were 1) to elaborate an evaluation method for muscle strength, 2) to evaluate the effect of exercises in closed and open kinetic chain, and 3) to evaluate dynamic knee stability in patients with ACL deficiency or ACL reconstruction.

Sagittal tibial translation and knee flexion angle were measured using the CA‐4000 computerised goniometer linkage. Muscle activation was registered with electromyography.

The intra‐ and inter‐rater reliability of 1 repetition maximum (RM) of seated knee extension was clinically acceptable. The inter‐rater reliability of 1RM of squat was also acceptable, but the intra‐rater reliability was lower. The systematic procedure for the establishment of 1RM that was developed can be recommended for use in the clinic.

One specific exercise session including cycling and a maximum number of knee extensions and heel raises did not influence static or dynamic sagittal tibial translation in uninjured individuals. A comprehensive rehabilitation program with isolated quadriceps training in OKC led to significantly greater isokinetic quadriceps strength compared to CKC rehabilitation in patients with ACL deficiency. Hamstring strength, static and dynamic translation, and functional outcome were similar between groups. Five weeks after ACL reconstruction, seated knee extension produced more anterior tibial translation compared to the straight leg raise and standing on one leg. All exercises produced less or equal amount of anterior tibial translation as the 90N Lachman test.

Five weeks after the ACL reconstruction the static and dynamic tibial translation in the ACL reconstructed knee did not differ from the tibial translation on the uninjured leg. Patients in the early phase after ACL injury or ACL reconstruction used a joint stiffening strategy including a reduced peak knee extension angle during gait and increased hamstring activation during activity, which reduces the dynamic tibial translation. Patients with ACL deficiency that completed a four months rehabilitation program used a movement pattern that was more close to normal.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, 2008. 115 p.
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1036
Keyword
Rehabilitation, anterior cruciate ligament, knee joint, joint instability, muscle strength, electromyography, ACL reconstruction
National Category
Physiotherapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-10498 (URN)978-91-85895-05-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-03-07, Aulan, Hälsans Hus, Universitetssjukhuset, ing 16, Linköping, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-01-28 Created: 2008-01-28 Last updated: 2015-12-18Bibliographically approved

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Tagesson (Sonesson), SofiKvist, Joanna

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