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Which are the antagonists to the pectoralis major muscle in 4th gear free‐style technique, cross‐country skiing?
Mid Sweden University.
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Mechanics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6267-3847
2007 (English)In: Science and Nordic Skiing, Linnamo, V., Komi, P.V. and Müller, E. (Eds.), Meyer and Meyer Sport, Oxford, UK / [ed] Vesa Linnamo, Paavo V. Komi, Erich Müller, Meyer and Meyer Sport, Oxford, UK , 2007, 112-118 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Between June 18-20 2006, the Vuokatti Sports Institute in Finland - arguably the world's finest ski training facility - played host to the International Congress on Science and Nordic Skiing."Science and Nordic Skiing" brings together the very latest in cutting edge research and developments into Nordic Skiing - ski jumping and cross-country skiing to biomechanics and the effects of cold weather on exercise - presented by some of the world's foremost experts in the field."Science and Nordic Skiing" is destined to become an invaluable and practical reference for sports scientists, coaches, skiers and anyone involved in this exciting area of winter sports.It presents the very latest research and development in the world of science and Nordic skiing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Meyer and Meyer Sport, Oxford, UK , 2007. 112-118 p.
National Category
Mechanical Engineering Sport and Fitness Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12910ISBN: 978-1-84126-229-1ISBN: 1-841-26-229-3OAI: diva2:17373
Available from: 2008-01-28 Created: 2008-01-28 Last updated: 2015-01-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Computational Biomechanics in Cross-country Skiing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Computational Biomechanics in Cross-country Skiing
2008 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Traditionally, research on cross‐country skiing biomechanics is based mainly on experimental testing alone. Trying a different approach, this thesis explores the possibilities of using computational musculoskeletal biomechanics for cross‐country skiing. As far as the author knows, this has not been done before.

Cross‐country skiing is both fast and powerful, and the whole body is used to generate movement. Consequently, the computational method used needs to be able to handle a full‐body model with lots of muscles. This thesis presents several simulation models created in the AnyBody Modeling System, which is based on inverse dynamics and static optimization. This method allows for measurementdriven full‐body models with hundreds of muscles and rigid body segments of all major body parts.

A major result shown in the thesis is that with a good simulation model it is possible to predict muscle activation. Even though there is no claim of full validity of the simulation models, this result opens up a wide range of possibilities for computational musculoskeletal biomechanics in cross‐country skiing. Two example of new possibilities are shown in the thesis, finding antagonistic muscle pairs and muscle load distribution differences in different skiing styles. Being able to perform optimization studies and asking and answering “what if”‐questions really gives computational methods an edge compared to traditional testing.

To conclude, a combination of computational and experimental methods seems to be the next logical step to increase the understanding of the biomechanics of crosscountry skiing.

Abstract [sv]

Traditionellt har biomekaniska forskningsstudier av längdskidåkning baserats helt och hållet på experimentella metoder. För att prova ett annat angreppssätt undersöks i denna avhandling vilka möjligheter som beräkningsbaserad biomekanik kan ge för längdskidåkning. Så vida författaren vet, har detta inte gjorts tidigare.

Längdskidåkning innehåller snabba och kraftfulla helkroppsrörelser och därför behövs en beräkningsmetod som kan hantera helkroppsmodeller med många muskler. Avhandlingen presenterar flera simuleringsmodeller skapade i AnyBody Modeling System, som baseras på inversdynamik och statisk optimering. Denna metod tillåter helkroppsmodeller med hundratals muskler och stelkroppssegment av de flesta kroppsdelarna.

Ett resultat som avhandlingen visar är att med en bra simuleringsmodell är det möjligt att förutsäga muskelaktiviteten för en viss rörelse och belastning på kroppen. Även om ingen validering av simuleringsmodellen ges, så visar ändå resultatet att beräkningsbaserad biomekanik ger många nya möjligheter till forskningsstudier av längdskidåkning. Två exempel visas, hur muskelantagonister kan hittas samt hur lastfördelningen mellan musklerna förändras då skidåkaren förändrar stilen. Att kunna genomföra optimeringsstudier samt fråga och svara på ”vad händer om”‐ frågor ger beräkningsbaserad biomekanik en fördel i jämförelse med traditionell testning.

Slutsatsen är att en kombination av beräkningsbaserade och experimentella metoder borde vara nästa steg för att addera insikt om längdskidåkningens biomekanik.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, 2008. 7 p.
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1346
Computer simulation, Inverse dynamics, Musculoskeletal, Optimization, Simulation model, Sports, Computational Biomechanics, Cross‐country Skiing
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-10671 (URN)978‐91‐7393‐986‐7 (ISBN)
2008-02-08, Case-salen, Hus A, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:00 (English)
Report code: LIU‐TEK‐LIC‐2008:4. On the day of the defence date the status of article V was: Submitted.Available from: 2008-01-28 Created: 2008-01-28 Last updated: 2015-01-14Bibliographically approved

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