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Computational Biomechanics in Cross-country Skiing
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Mechanics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6267-3847
2008 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Traditionally, research on cross‐country skiing biomechanics is based mainly on experimental testing alone. Trying a different approach, this thesis explores the possibilities of using computational musculoskeletal biomechanics for cross‐country skiing. As far as the author knows, this has not been done before.

Cross‐country skiing is both fast and powerful, and the whole body is used to generate movement. Consequently, the computational method used needs to be able to handle a full‐body model with lots of muscles. This thesis presents several simulation models created in the AnyBody Modeling System, which is based on inverse dynamics and static optimization. This method allows for measurementdriven full‐body models with hundreds of muscles and rigid body segments of all major body parts.

A major result shown in the thesis is that with a good simulation model it is possible to predict muscle activation. Even though there is no claim of full validity of the simulation models, this result opens up a wide range of possibilities for computational musculoskeletal biomechanics in cross‐country skiing. Two example of new possibilities are shown in the thesis, finding antagonistic muscle pairs and muscle load distribution differences in different skiing styles. Being able to perform optimization studies and asking and answering “what if”‐questions really gives computational methods an edge compared to traditional testing.

To conclude, a combination of computational and experimental methods seems to be the next logical step to increase the understanding of the biomechanics of crosscountry skiing.

Abstract [sv]

Traditionellt har biomekaniska forskningsstudier av längdskidåkning baserats helt och hållet på experimentella metoder. För att prova ett annat angreppssätt undersöks i denna avhandling vilka möjligheter som beräkningsbaserad biomekanik kan ge för längdskidåkning. Så vida författaren vet, har detta inte gjorts tidigare.

Längdskidåkning innehåller snabba och kraftfulla helkroppsrörelser och därför behövs en beräkningsmetod som kan hantera helkroppsmodeller med många muskler. Avhandlingen presenterar flera simuleringsmodeller skapade i AnyBody Modeling System, som baseras på inversdynamik och statisk optimering. Denna metod tillåter helkroppsmodeller med hundratals muskler och stelkroppssegment av de flesta kroppsdelarna.

Ett resultat som avhandlingen visar är att med en bra simuleringsmodell är det möjligt att förutsäga muskelaktiviteten för en viss rörelse och belastning på kroppen. Även om ingen validering av simuleringsmodellen ges, så visar ändå resultatet att beräkningsbaserad biomekanik ger många nya möjligheter till forskningsstudier av längdskidåkning. Två exempel visas, hur muskelantagonister kan hittas samt hur lastfördelningen mellan musklerna förändras då skidåkaren förändrar stilen. Att kunna genomföra optimeringsstudier samt fråga och svara på ”vad händer om”‐ frågor ger beräkningsbaserad biomekanik en fördel i jämförelse med traditionell testning.

Slutsatsen är att en kombination av beräkningsbaserade och experimentella metoder borde vara nästa steg för att addera insikt om längdskidåkningens biomekanik.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling , 2008. , 7 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1346
Keyword [en]
Computer simulation, Inverse dynamics, Musculoskeletal, Optimization, Simulation model, Sports, Computational Biomechanics, Cross‐country Skiing
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-10671ISBN: 9789173939867 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-10671DiVA: diva2:17376
Presentation
2008-02-08, Case-salen, Hus A, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Report code: LIU‐TEK‐LIC‐2008:4. On the day of the defence date the status of article V was: Submitted.

Available from: 2008-01-28 Created: 2008-01-28 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Versatile Optimization
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Versatile Optimization
2001 (English)In: Nordic MATLAB Conference Proceedings Oslo, Norway, October 17‐18, 2001, 207‐212- p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12908 (URN)
Available from: 2008-01-28 Created: 2008-01-28 Last updated: 2015-01-14
2. A biomechanical model of a double‐poling skier
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A biomechanical model of a double‐poling skier
2003 (English)In: In International Society of Biomechanics XIXth Congress on The human body in motion, CD Rom Abstracts and Proceedings, Milburn, P. (Ed.), University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand, 6‐11 July, 2003Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
National Category
Applied Mechanics Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12909 (URN)
Conference
International Society of Biomechanics XIXth Congress
Available from: 2008-01-28 Created: 2008-01-28 Last updated: 2015-01-14
3. Which are the antagonists to the pectoralis major muscle in 4th gear free‐style technique, cross‐country skiing?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Which are the antagonists to the pectoralis major muscle in 4th gear free‐style technique, cross‐country skiing?
2007 (English)In: Science and Nordic Skiing, Linnamo, V., Komi, P.V. and Müller, E. (Eds.), Meyer and Meyer Sport, Oxford, UK / [ed] Vesa Linnamo, Paavo V. Komi, Erich Müller, Meyer and Meyer Sport, Oxford, UK , 2007, 112-118 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Between June 18-20 2006, the Vuokatti Sports Institute in Finland - arguably the world's finest ski training facility - played host to the International Congress on Science and Nordic Skiing."Science and Nordic Skiing" brings together the very latest in cutting edge research and developments into Nordic Skiing - ski jumping and cross-country skiing to biomechanics and the effects of cold weather on exercise - presented by some of the world's foremost experts in the field."Science and Nordic Skiing" is destined to become an invaluable and practical reference for sports scientists, coaches, skiers and anyone involved in this exciting area of winter sports.It presents the very latest research and development in the world of science and Nordic skiing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Meyer and Meyer Sport, Oxford, UK, 2007
National Category
Mechanical Engineering Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12910 (URN)978-1-84126-229-1 (ISBN)1-841-26-229-3 (ISBN)
Available from: 2008-01-28 Created: 2008-01-28 Last updated: 2015-01-14Bibliographically approved
4. Using double‐poling simulations to study the load distribution between teres major and latissimus dorsi
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using double‐poling simulations to study the load distribution between teres major and latissimus dorsi
2007 (English)In: In Science and Nordic Skiing, Linnamo, V., Komi, P.V. and Müller, E. (Eds.), Meyer and Meyer Sport, Oxford, UK / [ed] Vesa Linnamo, Paavo V. Komi, Erich Müller, Meyer and Meyer Sport, Oxford, UK , 2007, 81-89 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Between June 18-20 2006, the Vuokatti Sports Institute in Finland - arguably the world's finest ski training facility - played host to the International Congress on Science and Nordic Skiing."Science and Nordic Skiing" brings together the very latest in cutting edge research and developments into Nordic Skiing - ski jumping and cross-country skiing to biomechanics and the effects of cold weather on exercise - presented by some of the world's foremost experts in the field."Science and Nordic Skiing" is destined to become an invaluable and practical reference for sports scientists, coaches, skiers and anyone involved in this exciting area of winter sports.It presents the very latest research and development in the world of science and Nordic skiing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Meyer and Meyer Sport, Oxford, UK, 2007
National Category
Mechanical Engineering Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12911 (URN)978-1-84126-229-1 (ISBN)184-12-62-29-3 (ISBN)
Available from: 2008-01-28 Created: 2008-01-28 Last updated: 2015-01-14Bibliographically approved
5. A musculoskeletal full‐body simulation of cross‐country skiing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A musculoskeletal full‐body simulation of cross‐country skiing
2008 (English)In: Proc. IMechE Vol. 222 Part P: J. Sports Engineering and Technology, ISSN 1754-3371, Vol. 222, no 1, 11-22 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a measurement-driven, musculoskeletal, full-body simulation model for biomechanical analysis of the double-poling (DP) technique in cross-country skiing. DP is a fast and powerful full-body movement; therefore, it is interesting to examine whether inverse dynamics using static optimization is working for a musculoskeletal full-body model with high accelerations, a large range of motion, and realistic loads. An experiment was carried out to measure motion and pole force of a skier on a double-poling ergometer. Using the measurement data, a simulation model was implemented in the AnyBody Modeling System (AnyBody Technology A/S, Denmark). Experimental results of motion and pole force from the DP ergometer, and also simulation results of relative muscle force profiles, are presented. These results agree with results found in literature when the kinematics and external kinetics are similar. Consequently, it should be possible to use computer simulations of this type for cross-country skiing simulations. With a simulation model, it is possible to perform optimization studies and to ask and answer ‘what if’ questions. Solutions to such problems are not easy to obtain by traditional testing alone.

Keyword
biomechanics, double poling, ergometer, inverse dynamics
National Category
Applied Mechanics Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12912 (URN)10.1243/17543371JSET10 (DOI)
Available from: 2008-01-28 Created: 2008-01-28 Last updated: 2015-01-14

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Holmberg, Joakim L.

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