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The Parenting of Society: From Report to Support
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Child protection is the process that aims to find, investigate and help maltreated children. In many countries this process is initiated by professionals who compile mandated reports that are then submitted to a designated agency that in many cases is part of a separate child protection system. In Sweden there is no separate child protection system. In Sweden, the child protection process is part of the family-service organization system. The system has two main objectives, one is voluntary (provide family service), the other coercive (provide child protection). This system is administered by the municipal social services agencies (referred to throughout as Social Services).

Aim: The overall purpose of this study was to gain knowledge of the child protection process in Sweden. The aim was two fold, one to carry out an in-depth study of a population of reports, the other to analyse the results of the findings in relation to the child protection system. The child protection system consists of elements outlined in the macro system: the underlying ideology and the framing of the problem, and the legislation, administration and the demands placed on professionals.

Method: A total population of reports made to one municipality during 1998 was followed to a final decision. The reports were collected in 2000.´There were 1 570 reports made regarding 1 051 children, which composed 4 % of children age 0-18. This initial study was used in four papers where data were analysed covering four different issues. In 2003 a follow-up study was conducted in order to determine the extent to which the child appeared in the database of Social Services. In the first paper the children’s age, gender and contacts with Social Services were described as were the content of the reports and the outcome of reporting. The objective of the second paper was a description of the reporter, and the measurement of the extent to which the reports indicated child maltreatment. The third paper aimed at analysing how the first decision, the decision not to investigate reports, was made in the child protection process. Then a re-evaluation of these decisions was made to see how well the decision was justified. The contacts taken were described. In the fourth paper the influence of the socio-economic load on the child protection process was measured.

Findings: Few reports (16 %) led to an intervention being provided, and 41% of the reports were not investigated further. In the follow-up study 61% of all 1 051 children appeared in the files of Social Services. As Sweden lacks a juvenile delinquency system these cases are automatically passed from the police to Social Services and are there registered as mandated reports.

Hence the police became the largest report group of reporters, followed by professionals. Of the professionals’ reports 22 % were not investigated. In the follow-up study 53 % of these re-occurred at the Social Service and were then investigated. Seventy six percent of the reports not investigated were when re-evaluated found to indicate child maltreatment.

The social worker used the parents as the main source for information in 74 % of the cases. The social worker did not contact the child at all in 53 % of the cases and only nine of the reporters were contacted. In the follow-up study 45 % of the children investigation re-appeared in the files of Social Services. Children from high socio-economic load districts were more often reported than those from middle or low (4.3%, 3.1% 2.3%). The socio economic load when measured in logistic regression was not found to correlate with the decision to investigate.

A main finding in this study was that the child protection process was difficult to separate from other systems within the family service. This makes it much more difficult to evaluate the child protection process.

The reports filed by professionals were not investigated adequately, and the lack of criteria of specifying how reports are to be evaluated creates a risk that maltreated children will not be found. The professional reports were handled in a way that increased the risk that professionals will have negative experiences with Social Services that consequently can lead them to refrain from filing eports.

Conclusion: These findings suggest the following: Pass new legislation that makes it easier to separate each of the three systems from the other. Create a national database in which data on the handling of child-protection cases is systematically recorded. Develop a national reporting form that is to be used by all who file mandated reports of suspected maltreatment. Create clear criteria that specify how a report is to be handled to ensure that the reporting professionals are met with appropriate respect and that the quality of the decisions is guaranteed all over the country.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin , 2007.
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1027
Keyword [en]
Child maltreatment, Child protection system, Mandated reporting, Child abuse
National Category
Psychiatry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-10713ISBN: 978-91-85895-55-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-10713DiVA: diva2:17426
Public defence
2007-12-07, Berzeliussalen, Campus US, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-02-13 Created: 2008-02-13 Last updated: 2009-08-22
List of papers
1. Child Protection in a Family Service Organisation in Sweden- What is the outcome for maltreated children?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Child Protection in a Family Service Organisation in Sweden- What is the outcome for maltreated children?
2010 (English)In: Children and youth services review, ISSN 0190-7409, E-ISSN 1873-7765, Vol. 32, no 7, 922-928 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study was conducted to increase the knowledge of what characterises the child-protection process in family-service organisations. A total of 1570 (regarding 1051 children) reports made to Social Services in one municipality during 1 year were followed to a final decision. A five-year follow-up study was conducted. There were 651 (41%) of the reports that were not investigated, 84% of the reports filed were judged not to demonstrate child maltreatment. The most usual cluster consisted of children that had committed a crime/offence when they were between 13 and 18 years old (314/1051–30%). The social worker reported 38% of the reports that regarded sexual or physical abuse to the police. Comparing the filtering pattern with the results from a study conducted in England, the family-service organisation does not seem to lead to the provision of services for a greater percentage of children than does a distinctive child-protection system. In the five-year follow-up period there were 61% of the children that were or had been targeted for an intervention or an investigation. This study raises questions about child protection in Sweden and emphasises the need for the system to be studied further.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12931 (URN)10.1016/j.childyouth.2010.03.003 (DOI)
Available from: 2008-02-13 Created: 2008-02-13 Last updated: 2017-12-13
2. Who suspects and report child maltreatment to Social Services in Sweden?: Is there a reliable mandatory reporting process?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Who suspects and report child maltreatment to Social Services in Sweden?: Is there a reliable mandatory reporting process?
2007 (English)In: European Journal of Social Work, ISSN 1369-1457, E-ISSN 1468-2664, Vol. 10, no 2, 209-223 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article deals with the mandatory report process in Sweden. The components that are analysed are who makes the reports, what is reported and the outcome for the reports. Data were collected in a Swedish county in the year 2000 by means of locating every report made to the Social Services during one year (1998). The net sample consisted of 1,570 reports regarding 1,051 children. A follow-up study was carried out in 2003 of all the children for whom a report in 1998 did not lead to an investigation being initiated. We found in these study indicators that the process might not be secure. The professionals reported 1% of the children in the municipality; 22% of the reports from professionals were not investigated. The five-year follow-up study shows that 53% of the children that these reports concerned had been the subject of an investigation. This could be an indicator that children continue to be maltreated after being reported since the assessments are not accurate. In this study, 67% of 'crime reports' were 'not indicating' child maltreatment. There should be a questioning of 'crime reports' automatically entering the mandated report process as, if registered nationally, this could lead to a deflation of mandatory reports. Administration needs to change introducing a national form for filing reports.

Keyword
Mandatory Reporting, Child Protection, Reporter, Child Welfare, Child Neglect, Child Abuse, Social Services, Anmälningsplikt, Anmälare, Barn Som Far Illa, Social Förvaltning, Barnmisshandel
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12932 (URN)10.1080/13691450701317996 (DOI)
Available from: 2008-02-13 Created: 2008-02-13 Last updated: 2017-12-13
3. Child Protection in Sweden: Are routine assesments reliable?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Child Protection in Sweden: Are routine assesments reliable?
2006 (English)In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 95, no 11, 1474-1480 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim: To study the validity of the decision not to investigate mandatory reports of suspected child maltreatment.

Methods: Written files of 220 reports indicating possible child maltreatment were analysed and re-evaluated. As a measure of the justification for the decisions, a 5-y follow-up study was done.

Results: We determined that 76% of the reports still indicated child maltreatment after the initial assessment was done. In the follow-up study, 45% of the children had been investigated. The social worker used the family as the only source of information in 74% of the cases, in 6% someone outside the family was contacted, and in 11% no further information in addition to the report was collected. In 9%, data on information sources were missing.

Conclusion: The findings are rather discouraging, as they challenge the belief that a report is a means of ensuring that maltreatment does not continue. The study shows that, depending upon the way in which the initial assessments are made, maltreated children may run a risk of not being identified, even though the maltreatment has been reported. This suggests that there may be a need for national guidelines concerning the reporting of maltreatment.

Keyword
Child abuse, child protection, decision making, mandatory reporting, social service
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12933 (URN)10.1080/08035250600784352 (DOI)
Available from: 2008-02-13 Created: 2008-02-13 Last updated: 2017-12-13
4. The Impact of Socio-economic load in Family Service organized child protection
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Impact of Socio-economic load in Family Service organized child protection
2007 (English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12934 (URN)
Available from: 2008-02-13 Created: 2008-02-13

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