Lipopolysaccharide induces preproenkephalin transcription in hypophysiotropic neurons of the rat paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus suggesting a neuroendocrine role for enkephalins during immune stress
2006 (English)In: Neuroscience, ISSN 0306-4522, Vol. 142, no 3, 781-788 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Opioids have impact on stress responses and possess immune modulatory functions. We have previously shown that immune stress elevates the levels of preproenkephalin transcript in a variety of autonomic structures in the rat brain, including the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus. By using in situ hybridization with an intronic probe recognizing the preproenkephalin heteronuclear RNA combined with retrograde tract tracing, we examined the efferent target of the enkephalinergic neurons in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus that display induced transcriptional activity during immune challenge. Rats were first given i.p. injections of the tracer substance Fluoro-Gold, which following this route of administration is taken up only by nerve terminals residing outside the blood–brain barrier, and were then given an i.v. injection of lipopolysaccharide. Neuronal cell bodies retrogradely labeled with Fluoro-Gold were detected by immunohistochemistry, and—using a dual-labeling approach—the same cells were then examined for their expression of preproenkephalin heteronuclear RNA. We found that over 90% of the neurons that expressed preproenkephalin heteronuclear RNA also contained Fluoro-Gold. In addition, approximately 40% of the neurons expressing preproenkephalin heteronuclear RNA co-expressed mRNA for corticotropin-releasing hormone, the main adrenocorticotropic hormone secretagogue. These data show that the paraventricular hypothalamic neurons that display induced preproenkephalin transcription following immune challenge are almost exclusively hypophysiotropic neurons, indicating a role for enkephalin in the hypothalamic control of hormone release during infectious and inflammatory conditions.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 142, no 3, 781-788 p.
opioid; corticotropin-releasing hormone; in situ hybridization; intron; gene expression; retrograde tract tracing
Medical and Health Sciences
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12956DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2006.06.062OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-12956DiVA: diva2:17532