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The effect of sympathetic stimulation on proximal brachial artery mechanics in humans: differential behaviour within the length of the brachial artery
Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Department of Clinical Physiology, Malmö University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden .
Department of Vascular Surgery, Malmö University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Physiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9095-403X
2004 (English)In: Acta physiologica Scandinavica, Vol. 182, no 1, 21-27 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims: The mechanical properties of arteries play a major role in the regulation of blood pressure and cardiac performance. The effect of sympathetic stimulation on the mechanical properties of the proximal brachial artery was analysed in 18 healthy volunteers, nine young (25 ± 2 years) and nine elderly (69 ± 2 years).

Methods: A non-invasive ultrasonic echo-tracking system for measurement of systolic/diastolic variation of the proximal brachial artery diameter in combination with intra-arterial pressure measurements was used to determine wall mechanics. The pressure–diameter (P–D) relationship, distensibility coefficient (DC), compliance coefficient (CC) and stiffness(β) were obtained at rest and during sympathetic stimulation induced by lower body negative pressure (LBNP).

Results: The peripheral vascular resistance increased by 100 and 72%, respectively in the young and elderly during LBNP (P < 0.001). Simultaneously, the mechanical properties of the proximal brachial artery remained unaltered, as estimated from both P–D relationship and stiffness in young (β-index rest: 5.2 ± 0.9, LBNP: 5.5 ± 1.3, NS) as well as elderly (β-index rest: 13.6 ± 4.6, LBNP: 16.1 ± 4.7, NS).

Conclusions: LBNP-induced sympathetic activation does not change proximal brachial artery mechanics, in contrast to earlier reports on the muscular distal brachial artery. This may imply that the transition between elastic and muscular artery behaviour is within the length of the brachial artery, where the site of transition from elastic to muscular wall structure needs to be specified in future studies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2004. Vol. 182, no 1, 21-27 p.
Keyword [en]
ageing, brachial artery, distensibility, lower body negative pressure, stiffness, sympathetic stimulation
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13029DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-201X.2004.01336.xOAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-13029DiVA: diva2:17691
Available from: 2008-03-13 Created: 2008-03-13 Last updated: 2017-03-27
In thesis
1. Aspects on wall properties of the brachial artery in man: with special reference to SLE and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aspects on wall properties of the brachial artery in man: with special reference to SLE and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The mechanical properties of the arterial wall are of great importance for blood pressure regulation and cardiac load. With increasing age, large arteries are affected by increased wall stiffness. Furthermore, atherosclerotic manifestations may increase the stiffness even further, both processes acting as independent cardiovascular risk factors affecting the arterial system in a heterogeneous way.

The aims of this thesis was to characterize the local mechanical properties of brachial artery (BA) with the aid of ultrasound technique and to evaluate the influence of 1) age, gender, sympathetic stimulation and examination site; 2) type 1 diabetes (DM) and its association to circulatory biomarkers; and 3) to evaluate the general properties of the arterial system with the aid of pulse wave velocity (PWV) as well as pulse wave analysis (PWA) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and correlate the findings to disease activity and circulatory biomarkers.

In the most proximal arterial segment of the upper arm a pronounced age-related decrease in wall distensibility, increase in intima-media thickness (IMT), and a slight increase in diameter were seen. Sympathetic stimulation had no influence on wall mechanics. More distally in BA, no change in diameter, and only minor increase in IMT and decrease in distensibility were seen. No gender differences were found. These findings suggest that the principle transit zone between elastic and muscular artery behaviour is located in the proximal part of the upper arm.

Women with uncomplicated insulin-dependent DM had similar diameter, IMT and distensibility in their distal BA as controls, whereas flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) was slightly, and nitrate mediated dilatation (NMD) markedly reduced. NMD was negatively correlated with higher HbA1c levels. Vascular smooth muscle cell function seems to be an early manifestation of vascular disease in women with DM, influenced by long-term hyperglycaemia.

Women with SLE had increased aortic PWV compared to controls, a finding positively associated with increased levels of complement factor 3 (C3), but not with disease activity. The increased stiffness of central arteries may be one factor contributing to the increased cardiovascular risk seen in SLE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, 2008
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1042
Keyword
Arterial wall, atherosclerotic, brachial artery (BA), type 1 diabetes, ulse wave velocity (PWV), pulse wave analysis (PWA), intima-media thickness (IMT), nitrate mediated dilatation (NMD)
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-11273 (URN)978-91-7393-982-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-04-11, Elsa Brändström, Campus US, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-03-13 Created: 2008-03-13 Last updated: 2017-03-27

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Bjarnegård, NiclasLänne, Toste

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