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Atomic scale interface engineering by modulated ion-assisted deposition applied to soft x-ray multilayer optics
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
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2008 (English)In: Applied Optics, ISSN 1559-128X, E-ISSN 2155-3165, Vol. 47, no 23, 4196-4204 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cr/Sc and Ni/V multilayers, intended as normal incidence soft x-ray mirrors and Brewster angle polarizers, have been synthesized by employing a novel modulated low-energy and high-flux ion assistance as a means of engineering the interfaces between the subnanometer layers on an atomic scale during magnetron sputter deposition. To reduce both roughness and intermixing, the ion energy was modulated within each layer. The flat and abrupt interfaces yielded soft x-ray mirrors with near-normal incidence reflectances of R = 20.7% at the Sc 2p absorption edge and R = 2.7% at the V 2p absorption edge. Multilayers optimized for the Brewster angle showed a reflectance of R = 26.7% and an extinction ratio of Rs/Rp=5450 for Cr/Sc and R = 10% and Rs/Rp=4190 for Ni/V. Transmission electron microscopy investigations showed an amorphous Cr/Sc structure with an accumulating high spatial frequency roughness. For Ni/V the initial growth mode is amorphous and then turns crystalline after ~1/3 of the total thickness, with an accumulating low spatial frequency roughness as a consequence. Elastic recoil detection analyses showed that N was the major impurity in both Cr/Sc and Ni/V with concentrations of 15 at. % and 9 at. %, respectively, but also O (3 at. % and 1.3 at. %) and C (0.5 at. % and 1.9 at. %) were present. Simulations of the possible normal incidence reflective properties in the soft x-ray range of 100-600 eV are given, predicting that reflectivities of more than 31% for Cr/Sc and 5.8% for Ni/V can be achieved if better control of the impurities and the deposition process is employed. The simulations also show that Cr/Sc is a good candidate for mirrors for the photon energies between the absorption edges of B (E = 188 eV) and Sc (E = 398.8 eV).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. Vol. 47, no 23, 4196-4204 p.
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13060DOI: 10.1364/AO.47.004196OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-13060DiVA: diva2:17756
Available from: 2008-05-06 Created: 2008-05-06 Last updated: 2017-12-13
In thesis
1. Materials Science of Multilayer X-ray Mirrors
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Materials Science of Multilayer X-ray Mirrors
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis treats the reflective and structural properties of multilayer structures. Soft X-ray multilayer mirrors intended as near-normal incidence reflective optics and polarizers in the water window (λ=2.4-4.4 nm) are the main focus. Such mirrors require multilayer periodicities between 1.2-2.2 nm, a large number ~600of multilayer periods (N), and atomically flat interfaces. Bi-metallic multilayers were deposited by dual-target magnetron sputtering on Si(001)

Geometrical roughness and intermixing/interdiffusion at the interfaces were investigated in connection with the impact of ion-surface interactions during growth of Cr/Ti, Cr/Sc, and Ni/V multilayers. This was achieved by comparing multilayers grown with or without high-flux low energy (Eion<30 eV) ion assistance. The use of modulated ion assistance resulted in a substantial improvement of interface flatness and abruptness in each of theAb-initio calculations indicate that the stabilization of the amorphous layer structure is due to a lowering of the total energy of the system by eliminating high energy incoherent interfaces between crystalline Sc and Cr.

Light element incorporation in Cr/Sc multilayers was investigated through residual gas pressure variation. It is shown that multilayers retain their structural and optical properties within the high vacuum range of 2×10-7-to-2×10-6 Torr. The incorporation of 34 at.% nitrogen at a higher residual gas pressure ( ~2×10-5 Torr) resulted in highly textured understoichiometricx/ScNy multilayers. As a result of nitrogen incorporation, interface widths as small as 0.29 nm, and near-normal incidence reflectivity enhancement (at λ=3.11 nm) by 100 % (compared to pure Cr/Sc multilayers) was achieved. Light element incorporation was also found to be advantageous for the thermal stability of the multilayers. In-situ hard X-ray reflectivity measurements performed during isothermal annealing in thex/ScNy are stable up to 350 °C. As an alternative route to metallic multilayers, single crystal CrN/ScN superlattices, grown by reactive sputtering in N atmosphere onto MgO(001), were also investigated. The superlattice synthesis at 735 °C, resulted in highly abrupt interfaces with minimal interface widths of 0.2 nm. As-deposited superlattices with only 61 periodsλ=3.11 nm as well as very high thermal stability up to 850 °C.

Abstract [sv]

Denna avhandling behandlar syntes, analys, och materialvetenskap rörande så kallade multilagerspeglar för mjuk röntgenstrålning. Speglarna är lämpade som optiska komponenter för instrument såsom röntgenmikroskop i våglängdsområdet 2,4 nm till 4,4 nm, även kallat vattenfönstret.

Tack vare de senaste decenniernas stora teknologiska och vetenskapliga framsteg i att framställa mycket intensiva källor för mjuk röntgenstrålning, såsom tex synkrotronljuskällor, frielektronlasrar, och plasmagenererade källor, är det nu tänkbart att utnyttja denna strålning till nya tillämpningar som tidigare inte varit möjliga. Några exempel är; röntgenmikroskopi av biologiska preparat med upplösning ca 1/100 av det som är möjligt med synligt ljus, fotolitografi av

Det finns flera stora utmaningar för att lyckas tillverka multilagerspeglar. Först och främst måste man hitta materialkombinationer som ger upphov till reflektion i mellanytorna mellan materialen men som inte samtidigt absorberar all röntgenstrålning. Dessutom måste materialen gå att belägga på varandra i flera hundra tunna lager, vart och ett endast ca 1 nanometer tjockt, med en ytojämnhet om endast några tiondels nanometer. Den absoluta tjockleks precision i varje

I det här arbetet har fyra olika typer av multilagerbeläggningar undersökts: krom/titan (Cr/Ti), krom/skandium (Cr/Sc), nickel/vanadin (Ni/V) samt kromnitrid/skandiumnitrid (CrN/ScN). Materialvalen har baserats på teoretiska beräkningar som visat att dessa materialsystem genererar mycket god reflektans i vattenfönstret. Varje kombination av metaller är optimal för en specifik våglängd och de individuella lagertjocklekarna måste optimeras teoretiskt för varje enskilt

För Cr/Sc multilager har vi visat att lagren som beläggs har en oordnad, så kallad amorf, struktur mellan metallatomerna som har sitt ursprung i att multilagrets totala energi kan sänkas om mellanytor mellan kristallint Cr och kristallint Sc kan undvikas.

Studier av effekterna av kväveupptag hos Cr/Sc multilagerspeglar under sputtringsprocessen har lett till ökad förståelse av materialsystemet. Till exempel har vi visat att kvävet framförallt binder till de inre regionerna av Sc och inte så mycket till Cr-lagren eller i mellanytorna. Med kväve i strukturen har vi gjort speglar som tål höga temperaturer, vilket är av stor betydelse för tillämpningar baserade högintensiva ljuskällor. Så kallade supergitter, dvs multilager

Publisher
81 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1169
Keyword
Soft X-rays, Multilayer mirrors, Magnetron sputtering, Interface engineering
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-11343 (URN)978-91-7393-946-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-04-18, Plank, Physics House, Linköping University, Linköping, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-05-06 Created: 2008-05-06 Last updated: 2009-04-28
2. Growth and Nano-structural Studies of Metallic Multilayer for X-ray Mirrors
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Growth and Nano-structural Studies of Metallic Multilayer for X-ray Mirrors
2005 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A part of the Ph.D. project focused on growth and characterization of metal multilayers is presented in this licentiate thesis. The main interest in carrying out this research is to develop highly reflective normal-incidence condenser mirrors for soft X-ray microscopy studies in the water window (λ=2.4-4.2 nm) wavelength regime.

Transition metals like Sc, Ti V, etc. have been considered because of the presence of their 2p-absorption edges within the water window. An anomalous dispersion at absorption edges has been utilized to get enhanced reflectance of soft X-rays. Since a single surface exhibits a very poor X-ray reflectivity, Cr/Sc, Cr/Ti, and Ni/V multilayers were grown in order to coherently add many reflections from several interfaces. The selection of Cr and Ni, as spacer layer, was made on the basis of their X-ray optical contrasts with the above-mentioned transition metals. The multilayer design, i.e., the individual layer thicknesses and the total number of bilayers, directly influences the resultant reflectance and careful determination was therefore made with the aid of computer simulations.

All multilayers were grown on chemically cleaned Si substrates by ion-assisted dual target magnetron sputtering under high vacuum (~10-7 Torr) conditions. The effect of low and high ion-flux bombardment of low energy (<50 eV) Ar ions, on growing surfaces was studied for all material systems. Furthermore, a two-stage deposition of each individual layer with modulated ion-energies was applied in order to obtain smooth and abrupt interfaces with as small intermixing as possible. Ion-surface interactions were also theoretically considered for estimating an appropriate ion-flux and ion-energy range desired for sufficient ad-atom mobilities.

X-ray reflectivity and transmission electron microscopy have been the main probes for multilayer characterization in this work. For the Cr/Ti multilayer designed for normal incidence and grown with optimized two-stage ion-energy modulation, a peak reflectance of 2.1% was achieved at the Ti-2p absorption edge (λ=2.74 nm). For a multilayer mirror designed for the Brewster angle a maximum reflectance of 4.3% was accomplished. These measurements were made at the synchrotron radiation source BESSY in Berlin. Specular reflectivity and diffuse scattering scans were utilized for quantitative and qualitative analysis of the vertical and lateral structure of the multilayers. At-wavelength measurements of a series of Cr/Ti multilayers revealed the accumulation of roughness with increasing number of bilayers (N>100) for this material system. Hard X-ray reflectivity and diffractometry were used for quality checks of the multilayers for rapid feedback to the deposition. In-situ annealing using hard X-ray reflectivity was also performed to assess the thermal stability of Cr/Ti multilayers. It was found that probably due to a strong thermal diffusion the degradation of multilayers (with bilayer period of 1.37 nm) in this material system occurs just above the growth temperature (~40°C). The accumulation of a low spatial frequency "waviness" with increasing number of layers in Cr/Ti multilayers was investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The influence of process conditions on multilayer structure with different periodicities was investigated by TEM analyses of a series of three samples for each of the above-mentioned material system. The Cr/Sc multilayers have shown the most flat and abrupt interface structure without any significant roughness evolution when grown with optimum process parameters.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, 2005. 69 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1193
Keyword
Soft X-rays, Multilayer Mirrors, X-ray microscope
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-11381 (URN)91-85457-23-X (ISBN)
Presentation
2005-10-28, Plank, Physics House, Linköping University, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
Report code: LiU-TEK-LIC-2005:48. On the day of the defence data the status of article I was: Accepted.Available from: 2008-03-26 Created: 2008-03-26 Last updated: 2009-05-15

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Eriksson, FredrikGhafoor, NaureenHultman, LarsBirch, Jens

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