Effect of phase formation on valence band photoemission and photoresonance study of Ti/Ni multilayers using synchrotron radiation
2006 (English)In: Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena, ISSN 0368-2048, Vol. 15, no 1-2, 56-66 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
This paper presents investigation of Ti–Ni alloy phase formation and its effect on valence band (VB) photoemission and photoresonance study of as-deposited as well as annealed Ti/Ni multilayers (MLs) up to 600 °C using synchrotron radiation. For this purpose [Ti (50 Å)/Ni (50 Å)]X10 ML structures were deposited by using electron-beam evaporation technique under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions. Formation of different phases of Ti–Ni alloy due to annealing treatment has been confirmed by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The XRD pattern corresponding as-deposited ML sample shows crystalline nature of both Ti and Ni deposited layers, whereas 300 °C annealed ML sample show solid-state reaction (SSR) leading to amorphization and subsequent recrystallisation at higher temperatures of annealing (≥400 °C) with the formation of TiNi, TiNi3 and Ti2Ni alloy phases.
The survey scans corresponding to 400, 500 and 600 °C annealed ML sample shows interdiffusion and intermixing of Ni atoms into Ti layers leading to chemical Ti–Ni alloys phase formation at interface. The corresponding recorded VB spectra using synchrotron radiation at 134 eV on as-deposited ML sample with successive sputtering shows alternately photoemission bands due to Ti 3d and Ni 3d, respectively, indicating there is no mixing of the consequent layers and any phase formation at the interface during deposition. However, ML samples annealed at higher temperatures of annealing, particularly at 400, 500 and 600 °C show a clear shift in Ni 3d band and its satellite peak position to higher BE side indicates Ti–Ni alloy phase formation. In addition to this, reduction of satellite peak intensity and Ni 3d density of states (DOS) near Fermi level is also observed due to Ti–Ni phase formation with higher annealing temperatures. The variable photon energy VB measurements on as-deposited and ML samples annealed at 400 °C confirms existence and BE position of observed Ni 3d satellite structure. The observed changes and modifications in the VB photoemission are discussed and interpreted in terms of structural changes at the interface due to annealing treatment.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 15, no 1-2, 56-66 p.
Ti/Ni multilayer; PES; Synchroctron radiation; Valence band; Annealing; Alloy phase formation
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13115DOI: 10.1016/j.elspec.2006.03.006OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-13115DiVA: diva2:17862