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High frequency electronic packaging and components: characterization, simulation, materials and processing
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Electronic packaging continues to move towards improved performance and lower cost. Requirements of higher performance, reduced size, weight and cost of both high density interconnects and high frequency devices have led to the search for new materials, material combinations, methods, processes and production equipment. Efficient technologies for producing high density interconnects, circuits for high frequency applications but also integrated packaging solutions for electrical and optical interconnects are looked for. Of emerging interest are methods and materials for ultra low cost printing of active components such as diodes and transistors.

Large area panel processing (LAP) and sequential build-up technologies, using an UV-excimer projection lithography equipment and a photo-patternable ORMOCER® dielectric, is presented. The novel large area processing equipment enables 5 μm resolution patterning of surfaces up to a size of 610 mm x 610 mm. Large area panel processing enables miniaturized low cost & high performance electronics & photonics packaging. The advanced ORMOCER® dielectric and optical materials allow low temperature processing on low cost polymer substrates with low temperature stability such as FR4. Partitioning between cheap standard (lower) density interconnect in PCB substrates and high density interconnect in the upper thin film layers is possible in order to reduce the number of metal layers and arrive at an optimal performance cost ratio for specific applications.

A demonstrator composed of four sequentially build-up dielectric layers have been deposited on a low cost FR4 epoxy substrate intended for high frequency applications. The dielectric layers consist of a photo-patternable ORMOCER® and the intermediate metal layers of sputtered Cu. The UV-patterning was performed with the LAP projection lithography equipment. The produced microstrip lines, ring resonators, vias, stacked capacitors and filters have been characterized at frequencies from 1 GHz to 40 GHz showing the potential of the new dielectric material for microwave applications.

The investigation of the material properties were performed with a network analyzer where specially designed structures had been made for the characterization. Some of the measurements at high frequencies were also evaluated and compared with simulations. The measured results showed good agreement with the simulated response. The experimentally obtained high frequency properties of εr ≈ 3.05 and tan(δ) ≈ 0.024 at 10 GHz - 40 GHz would be sufficient for many applications.

The dielectric properties of an electronics grade silicone elastomer have been investigated in the frequency intervals 0.1 Hz to 1 MHz and 7 GHz to 18 GHz. The low frequency measurements were performed with a dielectric spectrometer.

The results are discussed in terms of performance and usefulness of the material in electronic packaging. The permittivity at room temperature in the frequency range 7 GHz - 18 GHz varied between 2.75 to 2.8 and the loss tangent between 0.018 to 0.033. The loss tangent in the GHz region at room temperature was considerably higher than in the Hz – MHz region most probably due to the activation of the inherent alpha relaxation in the material when reaching the GHz-range.

A stepped impedance filter has been realized by changing the dielectric material, i.e. the permittivity instead of modifying the line width. It has been shown that the technology can offer alternatives to the standard approach and also that it is feasible to arrive at a denser packaging by combining low and high permittivity materials. The practical limit of the permittivity ratio is dependent on both available materials and on processability of these materials. The useful range of impedance ratios can be further increased by simultaneously using the ‘standard stepped impedance approach’ and the ‘variable dielectric approach’.

A novel rectifying device has been realized by screen printing a silicon powder composite with the intention to use a low temperature low cost manufacturing method. Rectification at frequencies up to 1 MHz has been demonstrated but so far with a too high series resistance to be practically useful. With optimization of the device and composite concept, low temperature, ultra-low cost high speed printing of e.g. high frequency diodes on any substrate, may be viable.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap , 2007.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1134
Keyword [en]
Dielectric loss, high frequency electrical characterization, microwave circuits, multilayer thin film technology, ORMOCER®, permittivity, printed diode, sequential build-up, silicone elastomer
National Category
Signal Processing
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-11455ISBN: 978-91-85895-84-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-11455DiVA: diva2:17891
Public defence
2007-10-24, K3, Kåkenhus, Campus Norrköping, Linköpings universitet, Norrköping, 11:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-04-03 Created: 2008-04-03 Last updated: 2009-05-04
List of papers
1. Microwave circuits in multilayer ORMOCER® thin film
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microwave circuits in multilayer ORMOCER® thin film
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2002 (English)In: Proceedings IMAPS Nordic 2002, 2002, 60-63 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A multilayer sequential build-up structure for the integration of passivemicrowave devices is presented. The different devices were processed byusing a photo-patternable polymer ORMOCER together with conducting layersof Cu on top of a FR-4 substrate. Microstrip and stub structures have beencharacterised at frequencies between 1 to 40 GHZ showing the feasibility ofusing this kind of material and build-up technology for microwaveapplications.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13133 (URN)
Conference
IMAPS Nordic 2002 Conference, Globe Hotel, Stockholm, Sweden, 29 September - 2 October 2002
Available from: 2008-04-03 Created: 2008-04-03 Last updated: 2012-11-22
2. Microwave circuits in multilayer inorganic-organic polymer thin film technology on laminate substrates
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microwave circuits in multilayer inorganic-organic polymer thin film technology on laminate substrates
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2003 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging, ISSN 1521-3323, E-ISSN 1557-9980, Vol. 26, no 1, 81-89 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Requirements of higher performance, reduced size, weight and cost of high-frequency (HF) devices has led to the search for new: materials, material combinations, methods, processes and production equipment. Efficient technologies for producing HF-circuits and integral passives are looked for. Also of interest are integrated packaging solutions for high frequency electrical packaging and optical interconnects and packaging. Sequentially build up multi-layers have been deposited on a low cost FR-4 epoxy substrate. The dielectric layers consist of a photo-patternable inorganic-organic hybrid polymer (ORMOCER) and the metallization is Cu. An UV-exposure equipment enabling projection patterning with 5 μm resolution have been used. The produced microstrip lines, ring resonators, vias, stacked capacitors and filters have been characterized at frequencies from 1 to 40 GHz showing the potential of the new dielectric materials and processing technologies for microwave applications.

Keyword
High frequency electrical characterization, microwave circuits, multilayer thin film technology, ORMOCER
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13134 (URN)10.1109/TADVP.2003.811548 (DOI)
Available from: 2008-04-03 Created: 2008-04-03 Last updated: 2012-11-22
3. Broadband dielectric characterization of a silicone elastomer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Broadband dielectric characterization of a silicone elastomer
2007 (English)In: Journal of Electronic Materials, ISSN 0361-5235, Vol. 36, no 9, 1206-1210 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The dielectric properties of an electronics grade silicone elastomer have been investigated in the frequency intervals 0.1 Hz to 1 MHz at −150°C to 100°C and from 7 GHz to 18 GHz at room temperature. The measurements were performed with a dielectric spectrometer for the low frequency range and with a waveguide setup for the high frequency range. The results are discussed in terms of performance and usability of the material in electronic packaging. Minor direct current (dc) conduction has been observed at high temperatures and is probably related to low levels (ppm) of ionic impurities.

Keyword
Dielectric characterization, silicone elastomer, silicone rubber
National Category
Signal Processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13135 (URN)10.1007/s11664-007-0124-6 (DOI)
Available from: 2008-04-03 Created: 2008-04-03 Last updated: 2009-05-04
4. Microstrip stepped impedance filters with variable dielectric or variable width
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microstrip stepped impedance filters with variable dielectric or variable width
2005 (English)In: Electronics Letters, ISSN 0013-5194, Vol. 41, no 13, 745-746 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A stepped impedance filter has been realised on a modified substrate. The change in impedance was achieved by varying the dielectric constant in the substrate while maintaining a constant width of the microstrip. In contrast to conventional stepped impedance filters the impedance is varied by the dielectric constant instead of the microstrip line width. The manufactured filter was measured and compared with an equivalent conventional stepped impedance filter. It is shown that the modified substrate technology could offer an alternative to the standard approach for the stepped impedance filter. In combination with new materials with a high permittivity the technology could also offer a denser package since the microstrip width could be controlled as desired.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13136 (URN)10.1049/el:20050974 (DOI)
Available from: 2008-04-03 Created: 2008-04-03
5. Printable rectifying device using Si-composite
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Printable rectifying device using Si-composite
2008 (English)In: Electronics Letters, ISSN 0013-5194, E-ISSN 1350-911X, Vol. 44, no 1, 53-55 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The R&D in finding low-cost manufacturing of electronics and electronic components is intense. One research route is aiming at roll-to-roll printing of organic electronics but the typically low mobility in organic semiconductors results in fundamental difficulties to fabricate, e.g., diodes for operation at high frequencies. A novel diode has instead been realised by screen-printing a silicon-powder composite with the intention to utilise the high mobility and the high operation frequency potential of silicon. The current against voltage (I-V) characteristics of the printed device reveal diode behaviour but so far with a too high ideality factor and resistance to be practically useful. By optimising device geometry, composite, and printing process low-cost printed, high frequency diodes (MHz-some GHz) may be viable.

Keyword
rectifying circuits, semiconductor device manufacture, current against voltage characteristics, high frequency diodes, organic electronics, organic semiconductors, printable rectifying device, printed device, roll-to-roll printing, silicon-powder composite
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13137 (URN)10.1049/el:20082824 (DOI)
Available from: 2008-04-03 Created: 2008-04-03 Last updated: 2014-08-26

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