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Health at Work: The Relationship between Organizational Justice, Behavioral Responses, and Health
Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Work and Rehabilitation . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Bakgrund: Anställdas hälsa, individuella beteenden i ett organisatoriskt sammanhang och upplevd organisatorisk rättvisa är teoretiskt förenade av social utbytesteori, copingteori och teorier som beskriver konsekvenserna av social ojämlikhet. Empiriskt är förhållandet mer oklart. De få studier som hitintills har granskat relationen mellan organisatoriskt beteende och rättvisa visar på ett samband mellan hög grad av upplevd rättvisa och konstruktiva beteenden och mellan låg grad av upplevd rättvisa och destruktiva beteenden. Flera tidigare studier har visat på ett samband mellan organisatorisk rättvisa och hög hälsa och låg grad av utbrändhet. Relationen mellan organisatoriskt beteende, särskilt rörlighet mellan olika arbetsplatser, och hälsa är överhuvudtaget inte studerat i någon större omfattning och denna relation är i stort sett okänd.

Syfte: Det övergripande syftet med föreliggande avhandling är att studera sambandet mellan organisatorisk rättvisa, individuellt organisatorisk beteende och hälsa.

Metod: De ingående delstudierna i föreliggande avhandling ingår i en longitudinell panelstudie med tre olika datainsamlingstillfällen. Ett frågeformulär sändes ut till samtliga anställda, även de som hade slutat eller gått i pension under studietiden, i Arbetsmarknadsverket,

AMV, i tre mellan svenska län 2001 (N=1010, svarsfrekvens: 78%), 2002 (N=1078, svarsfrekvens 75%) samt 2003 (N=1122, svarsfrekvens 74%).

I delstudie I, en tvärsnitts och longitudinell valideringsstudie, användes variansanalys, ”multi-trait/multi-item”, logistisk regressionsanalys samt olika former av faktoranalys för att validera och utvärdera ett instrument (Hagedoorn m fl., 1999) avsett för att skatta individuella beteenden i ett organisatoriskt sammanhang. I delstudie II, en longitudinell panelstudie, användes korrelationsanalys och strukturell ekvationsmodellering, SEM, för att studera den reciproka relationen mellan individuella organisatoriska beteenden och hälsa. I delstudie III, en longitudinell panelstudie, användes faktor-, korrelations- och SEM-analyser för att belysa sambandet mellan upplevd organisatorisk rättvisa, hälsa och utbrändhet. I delstudie IV, en longitudinell panelstudie, användes varians och generell linjär modellering, GLM, ”repeated measures” analyser för att belysa sambandet mellan önskan att byta arbetsplats, faktiskt byte av arbetsplats, hälsa och utbrändhet. I delstudie V, en longitudinell panelstudie, användes varians-, korrelations- och SEM-analyser för att studera det reciproka sambandet mellan hälsa, utbrändhet och byte av arbetsplats.

Resultat: Resultatet av delstudie I visade att Hagedoorn m.fl. (1999) instrument kan anses ha godkända psykometriska egenskaper, bortsett från delskalan ”aggressive voice” som uppvisade flera uppenbara svagheter. Delstudie II visade att relationen mellan individuella organisatoriska beteenden och hälsa framförallt är ensidigt: beteendet predicerar hälsan. Typbeteendet ”exit” predicerade sämre hälsa efter två år, medan typbeteendet ”considerate voice” predicerade bättre hälsa efter två år. Slutligen predicerade god fysisk hälsa typbeteendet ”exit” efter två år. Resultatet av Delstudie III visade att upplevd organisatorisk rättvisa är relaterat till god hälsa och låg grad av utbrändhet, både vid en tvärsnitts- och longitudinell jämförelse. De två olika sätten att studera organisatorisk rättvisa, antingen som ett globalt eller tredelat begrepp, bör betraktas som komplementära. I delstudie IV visade sig extern rörlighet, d.v.s. mellan olika arbetsplatser, i jämförelse med icke-rörlighet, har en gynnsam effekt på personlig och arbetsrelaterad utbrändhet. Resultatet visade också att samspelet mellan en önskan att byta arbetsplats och att faktiskt genomföra ett byte snarare är additiv snarare än interaktiv. Slutligen visade resultatet i delstudie V att rörlighet mellan olika arbetsplatser är en mer distinkt prediktor till hälsa och utbrändhet än hälsa och utbrändhet som prediktor till extern rörlighet. Önskan att byta arbetsplats, men inte upplevd organisatorisk rättvisa, visade sig ha effekt på faktiskt byte av arbetsplats.

Slutsatser: Föreliggande avhandling har belyst det socialpsykologiska förhållandet mellan organisatorisk rättvisa, beteende och hälsa. Resultatet visar att upplevd organisatorisk rättvisa predicerar hälsa och låg grad av utbrändhet. Resultatet visar också att aktiva individuella organisatoriska beteenden predicerar psykosocial hälsa: ett proorganisatoriskt beteende predicerar psykosocial hälsa medan ett anti-organistoriskt beteende predicerar psykosocial ohälsa. Extern rörlighet har en positiv effekt på utbrändhet och rörlighet är en tydligare prediktor till psykosocial hälsa och utbrändhet än vad hälsa och utbrändhet är till rörlighet.

Abstract [en]

Introduction: Employee health, individual behaviors in an organizational context and perceived organizational justice are theoretically united. The empirical relationship, especially between behavioral responses and organizational justice and between behavioral responses, and especially job mobility, and health are not previously studied in any apparent

extent.

Aim: The main aim with the present dissertation was to study the relationship between organizational justice, behavioral responses, and health.

Methods: The present study was designed as a longitudinal, three-wave, panel study. A questionnaire was mailed to all employees in three regional organizations of the Swedish National Labour Market Administration (AMV) at 2001 (N=1010, response rate: 78%), 2002 (N=1078, response rate: 75%) and 2003 (N=1122, response rate: 74%).

In study I, a cross-sectional and longitudinal validation study, was analyses of variance, multi-trait/multiitem analyses, logistic regression analyses and different forms of factor analyses used to validate and evaluate the Hagedoorn et al. EVLN instrument. In study II, a longitudinal panel study, correlation and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) analyses were used to elucidate the reciprocal relationship between behavioral responses and health. In study III, a longitudinal panel study, factor, correlation and SEM analyses were used to investigate the association between organizational justice, health and burnout. In study IV, a longitudinal panel study, was variance and General Linear Modeling (GLM) repeated measures analyses used to examine the relationship between turnover intentions, job mobility and health and burnout. In study V, a longitudinal panel study, variance, correlation, and SEM analyses were used to shed light upon the reciprocal relationship between health, burnout and job mobility with turnover intentions, organizational justice and age as affecting factors.

Results: Study I showed that the Hagedoorn et al. EVLN instrument was a valid instrument with the exception for the aggressive voice subscale that presents some obvious and distinct deficiencies. The results of study II indicate that the relation between behavioural responses versus health is mainly one-sided: behavioural responses predict psychosocial health. The behavioural response ‘exit’ at baseline was associated with worse psychosocial health at the two-year follow-up, while ‘considerate voice’ predicted good psychosocial health at the two-year follow-up. Good baseline physical health predicted a high degree of ‘exit’ behaviour after two years. Study III showed that organizational justice is cross-sectionally and longitudinally associated with physical, psychosocial health, and burnout. The two approaches to study organizational justice, as a global or threefold construct, should be regarded as complementary rather than exclusive. The results of study IV showed that external mobility had a positive effect on personal and work-related burnout compared with non-mobility and that the combined effects of turnover intentions and job mobility are additive rather than interactive. Finally, the results of study V showed that job mobility is a more distinct predictor of health and burnout than health and burnout is of job mobility. Turnover intentions, but not organizational justice, proved to have an effect on job mobility.

Conclusion: The present dissertation has elucidated the social-psychological relationship between organizational justice, behavioral responses and health. The results show that perceived organizational justice predicted good health and low degree of burnout. The results also show that active behavioural responses predict psychosocial health: pro-organizational behaviour, (considerate voice), was associated with high psychosocial health and a contra-organizational behaviour (exit) was associated with low psychosocial health. External job mobility showed a positive effect on burnout and is a more distinct predictor of health and burnout than health and burnout is of job mobility.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institutionen för medicin och hälsa , 2008.
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1062
Keyword [en]
Health, Burnout, Job mobility, Organizational, justice, Behavioural responses
Keyword [sv]
Hälsa, utbrändhet, rörlighet, upplevdorganisatorisk rättvisa, individuellt organisatoriskt
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-11663ISBN: 978-91-7393-912-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-11663DiVA: diva2:18082
Public defence
2008-05-22, Aulan, Hälsans Hus, Campus US, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-04-28 Created: 2008-04-28 Last updated: 2013-09-03
List of papers
1. Personality and Social Sciences: Psychometric evaluation and further validation of the Hagedoorn et al. modified EVLN measure
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Personality and Social Sciences: Psychometric evaluation and further validation of the Hagedoorn et al. modified EVLN measure
2008 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, Vol. 49, no 2, 169-177 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of the present study was to evaluate and further validate a modified Exit, Voice, Loyalty and Neglect (EVLN) instrument (Hagedoorn, Van Yperen, Van de Vliert & Buunk, 1999), in a Swedish sample (n= 792). To test the underlying scaling assumptions, the convergent and divergent validity, a multitrait/multi-item analysis was conducted and factor analyses were used to evaluate the factor structure. The concurrent validity was tested by using the modified EVLN instrument as predictor and three different forms of justice as criteria in the analysis. The criterion-related validity was tested and an association between exit behavioral response and actual exit behavior was found (predictive validity). The results showed that the instrument may be considered to be a valid measure with the exception of the aggressive voice scale.

Keyword
Psychometric evaluation • validation • EVLN • behavioral responses
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13223 (URN)10.1111/j.1467-9450.2007.00620.x (DOI)
Available from: 2008-04-28 Created: 2008-04-28 Last updated: 2013-09-03
2. The relationship between self-rated health and employee behavioural responses: a two-year follow-up study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The relationship between self-rated health and employee behavioural responses: a two-year follow-up study
2008 (English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13224 (URN)
Available from: 2008-04-28 Created: 2008-04-28 Last updated: 2013-09-03
3. The Associations between Perceived Distributive, Procedural, and Interactional Organizational Justice, Self-rated Health and Burnout
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Associations between Perceived Distributive, Procedural, and Interactional Organizational Justice, Self-rated Health and Burnout
2009 (English)In: Work - Journal of Prevention Assessment and Rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, Vol. 33, no 1, 43-51 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim: The aim of the present study was to examine the cross-sectional and 2-year longitudinal associations between perceived organizational justice, self-rated health and burnout. Metods: The study used questionnaire data from 428 Swedish employment officers and the data was analyzed with Structural Equation Modeling, SEM. Two different models were tested: a global organizational justice model (with and without correlated measurement errors) and a differentiated (distributive, procedural and interactional organizational justice) justice model (with and without correlated measurement errors). Results: The global justice model with autocorrelations had the most satisfactory goodness-of-fit indices. Global justice showed statistically significant (p andlt; 0.01) cross-sectional (0.80 andlt;= mle andlt;= 0.84) and longitudinal positive associations (0.76 andlt;= mle andlt;= 0.82) between organizational justice and self-rated health, and significant (p andlt; 0.01) negative associations between organizational justice and burnout (cross-sectional: mle = -0.85, longitudinal -0.83 andgt;= mle andgt;= -0.84). Conclusion: The global justice construct showed better goodness-of-fit indices than the threefold justice construct but a differentiated organizational justice concept could give valuable information about health related risk factors: if they are structural (distributive justice), procedural (procedural justice) or inter-personal (interactional justice). The two approaches to study organizational justice should therefore be regarded as complementary rather than exclusive.

Keyword
Organizational justice, self-rated health, burnout
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13225 (URN)10.3233/WOR-2009-0842 (DOI)
Available from: 2008-04-28 Created: 2008-04-28 Last updated: 2013-09-03
4. Job mobility as predictor of health and burnout
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Job mobility as predictor of health and burnout
2009 (English)In: Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, ISSN 0963-1798, Vol. 82, no 2, 317-329 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A few earlier studies have shown that employee's turnover intentions and job mobility simultaneously could affect health and burnout. The present study investigated the cross-sectional, 2-year longitudinal and possible interactional or additive effects of turnover intentions and job mobility (internal and external mobility) on health (SF-36) and burnout (CBI). The study used questionnaire data from 662 Swedish civil servants, 73% remained at the same workplace, 13% were internally mobile, and 14% left the organization (externally mobile) during the 2-year follow-up period. The results showed that high turnover intentions were cross-sectionally associated with worse mental health (MH) and higher degree of burnout. The externally mobile group had, after the change of workplace, less degree of personal and work-related burnout compared to the non-mobile group. The effect of internal mobility on burnout and health was negligible compared to the effects of external mobility. The results also indicated that the relationship between turnover intentions and actual job mobility are additive rather than interactive. One practical implication of the present findings is that external mobility, if it is in concordance with the individual intentions, could be a powerful health promoting factor.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13226 (URN)10.1348/096317908X332919 (DOI)
Available from: 2008-04-28 Created: 2008-04-28 Last updated: 2013-09-03
5. The longitudinal relationship between job mobility, perceived organizational justice, and health
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The longitudinal relationship between job mobility, perceived organizational justice, and health
2008 (English)In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 8, no 164Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: The main purpose of the present study was to examine the 2-year longitudinal and reciprocal relationship between job mobility and health and burnout. A second aim was to elucidate the effects of perceived organizational justice and turnover intentions on the relationship between job mobility (non-, internally and externally mobile), and health (SF-36) and burnout (CBI). METHODS: The study used questionnaire data from 662 Swedish civil servants and the data were analysed with Structural Equation Modeling statistical methods. RESULTS: The results showed that job mobility was a better predictor of health and burnout, than health and burnout were as predictors of job mobility. The predictive effects were most obvious for psychosocial health and burnout, but negligible as far as physical health was concerned. Organizational justice was found to have a direct impact on health, but not on job mobility; whereas turnover intentions had a direct effect on job mobility. CONCLUSION: The predictive relationship between job mobility and health has practical implications for health promotive actions in different organizations.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13227 (URN)10.1186/1471-2458-8-164 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-02-22 Created: 2009-02-22 Last updated: 2013-09-03Bibliographically approved

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