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Incubator best practice: A framework
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1952-902X
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3913-9977
2008 (English)In: Technovation, ISSN 0166-4972, E-ISSN 1879-2383, Vol. 28, no 1-2, 20-28 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Incubators have become a ubiquitous phenomenon in many parts of the world and are viewed as a tool for promoting the development of technology-based growth firms. Considering the large faith and the considerable amounts of money invested in incubators, the identification of best practice incubator models is of importance. Previous incubator assessment literature has tended to emphasise the measurement of incubator outcomes. In this paper, we argue that best practice identification requires a holistic approach, where the goals of the incubators are taken into account and the performance of different incubators are put in relation to their incubator models. In this context, the aim of this paper is to develop a framework that can serve as a basis for identifying best practice incubator models and for more rigorous evaluations of incubator performance. The framework suggested includes three distinguishing model components: selection, business support and mediation. We distinguish between idea-focused selection and entrepreneur-focused selection as well as between “picking-the-winners” and “survival-of-the-fittest” selection. Business support is seen as a continuum from “laissez-faire” to “strong intervention”. Mediation strategies vary in terms of the type of innovation system in focus: technological, regional or cluster. The framework is applied to 16 Swedish incubators.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. Vol. 28, no 1-2, 20-28 p.
Keyword [en]
Incubator, Performance, Best practice, Incubator model, Selection, Business support, Mediation
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13255DOI: 10.1016/j.technovation.2007.07.008OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-13255DiVA: diva2:18146
Note
Original Publication: Anna Bergek and Charlotte Norrman, Incubator best practice: A framework, 2008, Technovation, (28), 1-2, 20-28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.technovation.2007.07.008 Copyright: Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. http://www.elsevier.com/ Postprint available at: Linköping University Electronic Press http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13255 Available from: 2008-05-06 Created: 2008-05-06 Last updated: 2017-12-13
In thesis
1. Entrepreneurship Policy: Public Support for Technology-Based Ventures
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Entrepreneurship Policy: Public Support for Technology-Based Ventures
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The subject of this thesis is entrepreneurship policy and the focus is on public support programmes directed to early stages technology-based ventures. It advocates that a broad view should be taken with regard to the type of policies for entrepreneurship that aim at supporting the facilitation of the supported ventures’ ability to link to their surrounding innovation system, in which they can secure their access to crucial external resources. Taking the departure in the perspective that early stages technology-based ventures are vulnerable, this thesis shows that publicly financed entrepreneurship supporting programmes can be motivated because small and newly started ventures have got limited resources, and because the risks, with which they are associated, generally make them unattractive in the eyes of private actors.

Among the practical implications of this thesis, the following findings are emphasised: Public support, directed to the very earliest stages of venture development benefits from broadness, for the latter stages, specialisation and a higher degree of selectiveness could be an advantage. Moreover, it is important that the support provided take into account the whole process of business development, i.e. both the issues concerned with product/service and the issues connected to the market. A long-term commitment, cooperation between different actors and information about what support is available, are other aspects that are important for policymakers to consider in their design of public policies to support entrepreneurship. Finally, the importance of evaluative awareness must be emphasised from the very start.

Abstract [sv]

Den här avhandlingen är en sammanläggning av 7 studier kring vilka en kappa med titeln ”Entreprenörskapspolicy: offentligt stöd för teknikbaserade företag” har skrivits. De inkluderade studierna beskrivs kortfattat i slutet av den här sammanfattningen. Syftet med avhandlingen är att analysera skälen till varför statliga interventioner kan vara berättigade, vidare att analysera målsättningar, design och resultat av offentliga program för stöd av nya teknikbaserade företag/projekt och slutligen att identifiera såväl praktiska som forskningsintressanta implikationer för utformningen av framtida stödaktiviteter.

Avhandlingen baseras till största delen på olika typer av kvantitativa analyser av Stiftelsen Innovationscentrum (SIC) (studie 2-6). Förutom detta ingår en konceptuell studie där ett ramverk för att utvärdera inkubatorer, främst ur ett ”best practice” perspektiv, har tagits fram (studie 1). Slutligen har jag inkluderat en pågående uppföljningsstudie av Vinnovas program Vinn Nu (studie 7).

Avhandlingen förespråkar en bred syn på begreppet entreprenörskapspolicy, där syftet med stödet är att underlätta för företag/projekt att koppla upp sig mot relevanta innovationssystem där de kan säkra sin tillgång på externa resurser. Med utgångspunkt i ett sårbarhetsperspektiv visar avhandlingen att offentligt finansierade program som stödjer entreprenörskap kan motiveras genom att de små och nystartade företagens resurser är begränsade och eftersom riskerna ofta gör att intresset från privata aktörer att gå in i dessa företag är lågt. Avhandlingens praktiska implikationer är bland annat att det stöd som riktas till de allra tidigaste utvecklingsfaserna i syfte att kvalificera idéer bör vara brett. Däremot kan ett mer selektivt urval vara fördelaktigt i något senare utvecklingsskeden och för mer specialiserade stöd. Vidare visar de inkluderade studierna på behovet av att se till hela företagets utvecklingsprocess. Det innebär bland annat att det är nödvändigt att kombinera hårt och mjukt stöd och att lika vikt läggs vid produkt- och marknadsutveckling. Offentligt stöd bör också vara långsiktigt, och samarbete mellan olika stödprogram är viktigt, inte minst med avseende på information om vilka stöd som finns och hur, var, när och av vem dessa kan sökas. Slutligen understryks vikten av att stödprogram redan från början bör ta hänsyn till utvärderingsaspekter.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2008. 112 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1175Dissertations from the International Graduate School of Management and Industrial Engineering, ISSN 1402-0793 ; 114
Keyword
Public support programmes, Entrepreneurship policy, Early stages technology-based ventures, Entrepreneurship, Innovation, Innovation systems, Programme theory, Evaluation
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-11739 (URN)978-91-7393-923-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-05-30, C3, Hus C, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:15 (English)
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-04-22 Created: 2008-05-06 Last updated: 2017-10-23Bibliographically approved

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Bergek, AnnaNorrman, Charlotte

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