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Converting human carbonic anhydrase II into a benzoate ester hydrolase through rational redesign
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Biotechnology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1032-2145
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Biotechnology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2008 (English)In: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, ISSN 0006-3002, E-ISSN 1878-2434, Vol. 1784, no 5, 811-815 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Enzymes capable of benzoate ester hydrolysis have several potential medical and industrial applications. A variant of human carbonic anhydrase II (HCAII) was constructed, by rational design, that is capable of hydrolysing para-nitrophenyl benzoate (pNPBenzo) with an efficiency comparable to some naturally occuring esterases. The design was based on a previously developed strategy,[1] in which docking of a transition state analogue (TSA) to the active site of HCAII was used to predict mutations that would allow the reaction. A triple mutant, V121A/V143A/T200A, was thus constructed and shown to hydrolyze pNPBenzo with kcat/KM = 625 (± 38) M-1s-1. It is highly active with other ester substrates as well, and hydrolyzes para-nitrophenyl acetate with kcat/KM = 101700 (± 4800) M-1s-1, which is the highest esterase efficiency so far for any CA variant. A parent mutant (V121A/V143A) has measurable KM values for para-nitrophenyl butyrate (pNPB) and valerate (pNPV),[1] but for V121A/V143A/T200A no KM could be determined, showing that the additional T200A mutation has caused a decreased substrate binding. However, kcat/KM is higher with both substrates for the triple mutant, indicating that binding energy has been diverted from substrate binding to transition state stabilization.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi , 2008. Vol. 1784, no 5, 811-815 p.
Keyword [en]
Carbonic anhydrase, Hydrolysis, Mutagenesis, Protein engineering, Rational design, Specificity
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-11787DOI: 10.1016/j.bbapap.2008.02.007OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-11787DiVA: diva2:18208
Note
Original publication: Gunnar E. Höst and Bengt-Harald Jonsson, Converting human carbonic anhydrase II into a benzoate ester hydrolase through rational redesign, 2008, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, (1784), 5, 811-815. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbapap.2008.02.007. Copyright: Elsevier B.V., http://www.elsevier.com/Available from: 2008-05-13 Created: 2008-05-13 Last updated: 2017-12-13
In thesis
1. Engineering carbonic anhydrase for highly selective ester hydrolysis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Engineering carbonic anhydrase for highly selective ester hydrolysis
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

I denna avhandling presenteras arbete utfört med enzymet humant karboanhydras II (HCAII). Enzymer är en typ av proteiner som accelererar (katalyserar) kemiska reaktioner, vilket är nödvändigt för allt levande. Den naturliga funktionen för HCAII är att katalysera omvandlingen av gasen koldioxid till vätekarbonat, som är löslig i vätska. Detta är viktigt bl.a. för att koldioxid som bildas i kroppen, och fraktas i blodet i form av vätekarbonat, skall hinna över till utandningsluften under den korta tid blodet är i lungorna.

Proteiner består av aminosyror som länkats samman i en lång kedja, där varje aminosyra är en av de 20 naturliga aminosyratyperna. Ett proteins struktur och egenskaper bestäms av aminosyrasekvensen, som i sin tur bestäms av genen för just det proteinet. Med genteknik kan ett proteins gen ändras (muteras), så att aminosyrasekvensen ändras, och det har här utnyttjats för att förändra HCAIIs katalytiska egenskaper. Förutom dess naturliga funktion kan HCAII även klyva (hydrolysera) vissa estrar. Mutationer gjordes så att en ’ficka’ i HCAIIs struktur, där molekylerna (substraten) som skall klyvas binder, fick en större volym. På så sätt skapades varianter med en kraftigt ökad kapacitet för att hydrolysera långa estersubstrat jämfört med icke-muterat HCAII. Som en utveckling av detta projekt skapades en mutant av HCAII, som kan hydrolysera ett än mer skrymmande substrat.

I ett annat projekt har en ny katalytisk aktivitet skapats i HCAII, som inte utnyttjar enzymets naturliga katalytiska förmåga. Ett nytt estersubstrat konstruerades, med en del som binder kraftigt till HCAII, så att en stark substratbindning erhölls. Sedan muterades vissa aminosyror till en reaktiv aminosyra som heter histidin. Valet av positioner för mutation baserades på en datormodell av enzymet med bundet substrat. Eftersom histidin kan delta i hydrolysreaktioner, får det muterade enzymet möjlighet att klyva substratet. Flera olika mutanter testades, och den effektivaste innehöll ett nära kopplat par av histidiner. Denna mutant undersöktes mer noggrannt, vilket gav viss information om den katalytiska mekanismen.

Det långsiktiga målet med detta arbete är att konstruera muterade enzymer som kan klyva giftiga ämnen, eller användas vid framställning av kemikalier. Det finns behov av nya enzymer för olika typer av substrat, och att med rationella metoder skapa nya katalytiska aktiviteter i proteiner är ett svårt vetenskapligt problem som ännu är i ett tidigt utvecklingsskede.

Abstract [en]

The main part of this thesis describes results from protein engineering experiments, in which the catalytic activity of the enzyme human carbonic anhydrase II (HCAII) is engineered by mutagenesis. This enzyme, which catalyzes the interconversion between CO2 and HCO3- in the body, also has the ability to hydrolyze ester bonds. In one project, the specificity of HCAII towards a panel of para-nitrophenyl ester substrates, with acyl chain lengths ranging from one to five carbon atoms, was changed by enlarging the substrate binding hydrophobic pocket. A variant was identified that has highly increased specificity towards substrates with long acyl chains. The mutant V121A/V143A hydrolyzes pNPV, which has four carbon atoms in the acyl chain, with an efficiency that is increased by a factor of 3000 compared to HCAII. Further, transition state analogues (TSAs) were docked to HCAII and mutant variants, and the results were correlated to the results from kinetic measurements. This indicated that automated docking could be used to some extent to construct HCAII variants with a designed specificity. Using this approach, a HCAII mutant that can hydrolyze a model benzoate ester was created. Interestingly, the resulting variant V121A/V143A/T200A was found to be highly active with other ester substrates as well. For pNPA, a kcat/KM of 1*105 M-1s-1 was achieved, which is the highest efficiency for hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters reported for any HCAII variant.

In another project, the strong affinity between the active site zinc ion and sulfonamide was used to achieve binding of a designed substrate. Thus, the natural Zn-OH- site of HCAII was not used for catalysis, but for substrate binding. The substrate contains a benzenesulfonamide part in one end, with a para-nitrophenyl ester connected via a linker. The linker was chosen to ensure that the scissile bond is positioned close to His-64 and histidine residues introduced by mutagenesis in other positions. Using this approach, an enzyme was designed with a distinctly new two-histidine catalytic site for ester hydrolysis. The mutant, F131H/V135H, has a kcat/KM of approximately 14000 M-1s-1, which corresponds to a rate enhancement of 107 compared to a histidine mimic.

Finally, results are reported on a project aimed at cloning and producing a putative carbonic anhydrase from the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. The gene was cloned by PCR and the construct was overexpressed in E. coli. However, the resulting protein was not soluble, and initial attempts to refold it are also reported.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, 2007
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1085
Keyword
carbonic anhydrase, specificity, hydrolysis, rational design, protein engineering, plasmodium falciparum
National Category
Industrial Biotechnology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-10477 (URN)978-91-85715-43-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2007-04-04, Planck, Fysikhuset, Campus Valla, Linköpings Universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
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Supervisors
Available from: 2008-01-09 Created: 2008-01-09 Last updated: 2013-10-04

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